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Soil nailing is a construction technique used to reinforce soil to make it more stable. Soil nailing is used for slopes, excavations, retaining walls etc. to make it more stable. In this technique, soil is reinforced with slender elements such as reinforcing bars which are called as nails. These reinforcing bars are installed into pre-drilled […]
Types of foundation failure depend on the load it is subjected to. A foundation can fail in three different ways under loads and they are: Punching shear failure of foundation One-way shear failure of foundation Flexure failure of foundation. The above three modes of foundation failure should be checked during design stage of concrete foundation […]
Design of earth dams starts with calculation of forces acting on the dam structure. The loads acting on earth dams is same as loads acting on gravity dams. Earth dams are made of non-rigid materials i.e. soil. Fig: Earth Dam Structure The design principles of earth dams: 1. The filling material to be used for […]
There are three types of tendering methods in construction – by open tendering, selective tendering, or by negotiation. Open Tendering Methods in Construction: Under open tendering the employer advertises his proposed project, and permits as many contractors as are interested to apply for tender documents. Sometimes he calls for a deposit from applicants, the deposit […]
Pile foundation selection depends on the soil data received from soil exploration bore holes at different depths. Selection of pile foundation types and length depends on following conditions: Soil conditions Loads from structures Nature of loads Number of piles to be used Cost of construction There are three types of pile foundation based on load […]
Damage to structural concrete can be due to the use of excessive water, poor cement, poor construction practices, improper mixture proportioning, dirty or low quality aggregate, and inadequate curing.
Capacity of pile group is the sum of the individual capacities of piles, but it is influenced by the spacing between the piles. Piles are driven generally in groups in regular pattern to support the structural loads. The structural load is applied to the pile cap that distributes the load to individual piles. If piles […]