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Rate analysis of excavation in earthwork is the measure of quantity of excavation to be carried out, the cost of equipment, machineries and labors required for the same. The cost of excavation depends on the depth of excavation, type of soil, method of excavation to be carried out and the distance where the excavated soil […]
Types of Drawings prepared by Structural Engineers There are four different types of drawing: 1) Structural Drawings 2) Reinforcement Drawings 3) Standard Details 4) Record Drawings Structural Drawings: Structural Drawings are used to progress the Architect’s concept by specifying the shape and position of all parts of the structure – thus enabling the construction of […]
High-Strength versus High Performance Concrete High strength concrete and high-performance concrete are not synonymous because strength and performance of concrete are different properties of concrete. High-strength concrete is defined based on its compressive strength at a given age. During 1970s, any concrete mixtures which showed 40 MPa or more compressive strength at 28 days were […]
Records to be maintained at construction sites play important role in construction activities. It is a document required to prove any construction activity has taken place at site during billing or any other claims. These records have all the data of various construction activities carried out at site. If any additional work has been carried […]
Bar bending schedule provides the reinforcement calculation for reinforced concrete beam. It provides details of reinforcement cutting length, type of bends and bend length. We will take one example for reinforcement quantity calculations for a concrete beam. Example of RCC Beam Reinforcement Calculation: Consider a beam of clear length of 4m, 300mm wide by 450mm […]
The materials used for concrete repair works such as replacement and jacketing of concrete structural members should have good bonding properties with the existing materials and should be non-shrinking. Replacement of concrete is done for damaged structural members. For strengthening of existing concrete members, additional concrete including reinforcement is added in the form of jackets. […]
There are two types of pavements based on design considerations i.e. flexible pavement and rigid pavement. Difference between flexible and rigid pavements is based on the manner in which the loads are distributed to the subgrade. Before we differentiate between flexible pavements and rigid pavements, it is better to first know about them. Details of […]