Concrete in Seawater For several reasons, effect of seawater on concrete deserves special attention. First, coastal and offshore sea structures are exposed to the simultaneous action of a number of physical and chemical deterioration processes, which provide an excellent opportunity to understand the complexity of concrete durability problems in practice. Second, oceans make up(…)
A rainwater harvesting system consists of components for transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and tanks for storage of harvested water. The common components of a rainwater harvesting system are: – 1. Catchments: The surface which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the system is called catchment area. It can be(…)
The use of steel fibre in concrete can improve its many properties. The benefits of using steel fibres in concrete are as follows: 1. Steel Fibres are generally distributed throughout a given cross section whereas reinforcing bars or wires are placed only where required 2. Steel fibres are relatively short and closely spaced as compared(…)
Joints in liquid retaining concrete structures are important part of its design as joints are required as per size and position of structure.
The four essential features of a successful repair are: 1. Expediency: The longer the repair is left, the more work has to be done, and the less likely that the repair will blend in. 2. Cleanliness: when repairing concrete, care must be taken to remove any dirt or dust that will prevent the repair concrete(…)
Minimum Thickness of Structural Concrete members and Concrete embedded Elements Structural concrete member sizes should be as per Design Requirements. However, minimum dimensions of structural members can be considered as given below: Sl. No. Structural Element Minimum Thickness 1 Pile cap 600mm 2 Levelling concrete below liquid retaining structures 100mm 3 Levelling concrete for other(…)
Honeycombs are hollow spaces and cavities left in concrete mass on surface or inside the concrete mass where concrete could not reach. These look like honey bees nest. Honeycombs which are on sides are visible to naked eyes and can be detected easily as soon shuttering is removed. Honey combs which are inside mass of(…)
There are three main types of cladding panel: Spandrel Load bearing Non-load bearing Spandrel: A spandrel panel has the same basic features of a cladding panel, but it also has a beam incorporated in it. This allows a greater performance from the cladding panel than simple building enclosure. Panels can be manufactured in many shapes(…)