A safe practice for formwork during construction at site is important for safety of workmen. Improper erection of formwork can cause damage to structural element as well as pose threat to the safety of workmen.
Following are the safe practices checklist for formwork:
Formwork Safety Checklist during Design:
1. Formwork should be properly designed for the structural element considered and its working drawing should be available at site.
2. Design of formwork should consider all the loads it will experience during casting of concrete structural members.
3. Strength of materials used for formwork should be adequate to support structural load as well as other loads imposed on it.
4. Formwork design should indicate the rate of concrete pour, height of concrete pour, temperature and sequence and schedule of concrete pours.
5. Working drawing of formwork should have detailed dimensions including pouring pocket size, compaction opening and cleanouts.
6. Formwork design should consider the safe bearing capacity of soil.
Formwork Safety Checklist during Construction:
Following inspection should be carried out before starting the concreting of structural member:
1. Inspection of entire formwork system for details from bottom to top of formwork for proper load transfer in safe manner.
2. Inspection of working scaffolds, ladders, runways, ramps and crossings.
3. Maintenance of good housekeeping around working area and passage.
4. Guarding of peripheral edges and floor openings.
5. Adequate space for safe working.
6. Safety training of workmen involved in formwork and concreting works.
7. Use of all personal protective equipment (PPEs).
8. Formwork, rigging inserts and connections checked for correct installation and periodically checked for wear and correct position.
9. Removal of all unused and hanging forms, loose materials etc. stored on exposed floors.
10. Inspection of all props and shores for adequacy to handle all the loads.
11. Removal of defective props.
12. Alignment of props such as verticality, height and spacing between props should be inspected.
13. All props should be rested on bearing plates.
14. Props should be placed on hard bearing surface.
15. Safe nailing and firm locking of clamps on adjustable props.
16. Lateral stability of formwork and complete fixity at the joint between props when one prop is placed on the top of the other.
17. Proper bearing below the stringers and joists at points of supports.
18. De-shuttering and removal of props below concrete slabs and beams after development of adequate strength in concrete.
19. Construction loads not placed on freshly cast slab or beams while removal of formwork or before concrete attaining required strength.
There can be many more checklists for formwork which has not been written here. If you think any addition has to be made, please write those in comments.
You can also download this document for formwork safe practices