MULTI-STOREY CAR PARKING SYSTEM – PROJECT REPORT



Automatic multistoried car parking system helps to minimize the parking area. In the modern world where parking space has become a very big problem, it has become very important to avoid the wastage of space in modern big companies and apartments etc. in places where more than 100 cars need to be parked, this system proves to be useful in reducing wastage of space. This automatic car parking system enables the parking of vehicles, floor after floor and thus reducing the space used. Here any number of cars can be parked according to the requirement. These makes the system modernized and thus space-saving one. This idea is developed using 8051 microcontroller.

THEORY OF PROJECT

A display is provided at the ground floor which is basically a counter which will count the number of cars in each floor and according to that message will be displayed on it. A gate is also provided at the ground floor which is controlled by the stepper motor. Before the gate an IR pair is provided to sense that the car has reached towards the gate. For e.g. suppose a car reaches between the 2 IR pairs, then the LCD will display the particular floor on which car can be parked. As soon as the car crosses the 2nd IR pair, the gate will open automatically. An indicator with green and red led is kept on each floor to indicate whether the car can be parked on that particular floor or not. If green led of any particular floor glows, then it will indicate that the particular floor is empty and you can park your car on that floor. But in case if red led of that particular floor glows, then it will indicate that there is no vacancy on that floor, in such case you can park your car on the next floor according to the indication.

If there is no parking place, then all the red indicators of the floors will glow and the LCD will display “NO SPACE FOR PARKING” and the gate will remain closed.

Program is written using 8051 microcontroller. All the circuits are interfaced with it.

ADVANTAGES OF MULTI-STORY CAR PARKING:-

Any like Newyork, Delhi, London has over five million cars and two-wheelers on its roads, but not enough parking spaces. The demand for parking space has, on an average in the main markets of Delhi, outstripped demand by 43 per cent. It is not just a problem of Delhi or Mumbai; all the big cities in India are facing the space crunch. Parking space is fast becoming a major issue in other cities like Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Pune and other urban and semi-urban cities.
Multi-storey car parks provide lower building cost per parking slot, as they typically require less building volume and less ground area than a conventional facility with the same capacity.
A multi-storey car parks offer greatest possible flexibility for the realization of optimum parking solution. Time-saving vertical and horizontal movements take place simultaneously ensuring fast parking and retrieval times.

DISADVANTAGES OF MULTI-STORY CAR PARKING:-

Drivers who use multi-story parking facilities, sometimes known as parking garages, often enjoy a number of benefits the structures provide. Despite the ability of the garages to house a large number of cars, multi-story parking facilities also carry a number of distinct disadvantages that arise from their tall, enclosed and often dimly lit nature.

1.Deterioration and Maintenance

Multi-story parking facilities support hundreds of thousands of pounds of vehicles, people and equipment every day. Because the garages support very large amounts of weight and loads that constantly change, the structures quickly deteriorate in the absence of constant maintenance activity. In addition, according to Canada’s National Resource Council, changing weather and environmental conditions can deteriorate a garage’s steel support structure, creating an unsafe environment for garage users. A number of corrosion inhibitors can help delay processes that eat away at the structure’s integrity, according to the National Resource Council, but constant maintenance and upkeep must include anti-corrosion measures to keep multi-story parking facilities structurally sound.

2.Parking Angle Considerations

Because many drivers of varying levels of skills and experience drive in, around and out of parking garages every day, designers must pay special attention to the configuration of parking spaces within the structures. In a municipal parking garage presentation prepared by architects Sakri and Khairuddin, the designers noted that two-way traffic flow in a multi-story garage presents a number of parking challenges for drivers and designers. Parallel parking, for example, creates an inefficient use of limited space, while straight parking spaces make parking difficult for some drivers. Other options, like angled parking, do not work well with a two-way traffic flow and can only work well in garages with separate entrance and exit openings.

3.Lighting

While most parking lots open at night, multi-story or otherwise, require some form of lighting, the multi-story nature of parking garages creates a need for numerous lights throughout the structure. In addition, because the inside of the structure may remain dark even during the day, many of these lights must run at all times. This arrangement can create high energy bills for garage owners and may require frequent lighting maintenance to replace broken or burned-out bulbs.

4.Safety

Because multi-story parking facilities allow limited natural light inside, some security experts express concern about safety inside the structures. In their municipal presentation, architects Sakri and Khairuddin recommend security devices that directly connect to local police or public safety stations. In addition, the architects explicitly describe a need to reduce dark places where criminals may hide. Even with security measures in place, though, criminals still seem to thrive in multi-story parking structures; in a 2009 article in the Chicago Sun-Times, one parking garage user expressed frustration after experiencing three burglaries within two years.

This project Report was submitted by Sai Krishna.

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