There are two types of Plastics, namely Thermoplastic and Thermosetting plastics distinguished by the physical property.
This type can be softened by heating after they have been cured and remoulding cycle can in theory be repeated an indefinite number of times but in practice some defects may eventually take place. The curing process is that by which the shape is moulded by heat and pressure to form the hard shape.
The shape is first prepared by softening under heat and then cured with the use of further heat. After this stage, no further heat will deform the moulded shape once chemical decomposition has occurred. In general these plastics have giant three dimensional molecules.
PROSPECTS OF PLASTICS FOR BUILDINGS:
Plastics are manufactured in different forms such as moulding pipes, sheets and films. They are formed or expanded to produce materials of low density. Dissolved in solvents or dispersed as emulsions, they are used in paints, varnishes and adhesives. At present, plastics find use in buildings mainly in thin coverings, panels, sheets, foams, pipes etc. skilful use of plastics will expand the usefulness and life of conventional building materials and help them to function more efficiently and economically.
A wide range of applications of plastics in buildings are given below:
Applications of plastics in façade panels, exterior covering, carpentry etc.
1. Sandwich panels covering with PVC (polyvinyl Chloride), plasticized plates and polyurethane foams.
2. Sandwich panels – asbestos cement covering and polyurethane foam core
3. Sandwich panel – polystyrene foam core and various coverings
4. Sandwich panel – covering with polyester laminated sheet and polyurethane foam core
5. Sandwich panel – enameled iron covering and polyurethane foam core.
6. Sandwich panel – covering with polyester laminated sheet glued to asbestos cement and polyesterene foam core.
1. Polyester coated concrete by moulding from an existing plates.
2. Sprayed polyurethane with sand and gravel agglomeration.
3. Epoxy resins and polyesters on various supporting media
4. PVC plasticized plates (spraying, coating or adhesive films)
5. Polyester epidermis available as permanent shuttering
3. Polymethyl methacrylate
i. PVC casing on metal moulding
ii. Polyester laminated sheet on wooden moulding
iii. PVC – chlorinated polyethylene compound
iv. Methyl polymethacrylate
v. Polyester glass fibre and phenolic foam core
vi. PVC/ wood
i. Plasticized PVC extruded sections
ii. Rigid PVC extruded sections
iii. Polyamide winding gear
Blinds and sun screens
Interior Covering, Floors, Walls, Ceilings, Doors, Partitions Etc
a) Wall Lining
i. Adhering films – vinyl coated fabrics or paper vinyl sheet doubling on fabric or paper etc.
ii. Sprayed lining polyurethane
iii. Laminabee – Molamine and phenolic plastics – polyester
iv. Wall tiles – polystyrene, PVC – tiles or mosaic
v. Coating – polyvinyl acetate
b) Floor Covering
i. Asbestos plastic slabs (asphalt tile type)
ii. Vinyl asbestos slabs
iii. Homogeneous semi-flexible vinyl slabs
iv. Flexible, homogeneous or multi-layered vinyl slabs.
v. Homogeneous vinyl carpets (a) stuck, (b) laid
vi. Vinyl carpets on felt (applied or coating)
vii. Multi-layered coating with cellular structure on fabrics
(a) Multilayered coating on cork structure
(b) Vinyl carpets on jute cloth.
viii. Thermosetting resin based covering
ix. Rubber covering
x. Synthetic fibre tensile covering (polyamides, viscose etc.)
Ceilings and Counter Ceilings
i. Translucent – polyester, PVC, polyamides, polyurethanes
ii. Opaque, extruded polyesterene or vinuyl co-polymers, impact type polystyrene
iii. Lighting – PVC, polymethylmethacrylate
Roof Coverings, Tightness, Domes and Lighting elements
i. Flat or corrugated sheets – polyester, PVC, polymethylmethacrylate
ii. Curved sheets – reinforced polymer
iii. Domes – polyester, polymethylmethacrylate
iv. Casements – polymethylmethacrylate, reinforced polyester
v. Troughs – class / polyester
vi. Gutters – Rigid PVC polyester
vii. Downpipes – PVC
i. Polybutylene with or without glass cloth armature
ii. Butyl rubber
iii. Multilayered bitumen with PVC film screens and armatures
iv. PVC sheets
v. Welded polyester
Sanitary Equipment and Piping
(a) Sinks – polymethylmethacrylate, polyester, polyamides
(b) Basins – polyester, polymethylmethacrylate – polyester / glass fibre
(c) Baths – polyester, polymethylmethacrylate
(d) Showers – polymethylmethacrylate, polyester
ii. Pipe works – PVC, phenolics, ABS – terpolymer
iii. Fittings – PVC and ABS – terpolymer – phenolic plastics
iv. Traps – polyamides
v. Water – finishings – polysterene and copolymers, polymer and copolymers, polyethylene
Insulation materials and application of foams
iv. Formaldehyde urea
Some noteworthy trends in use of plastics are given below:
i. Concrete and mortar with thermosetting resin bending agents
ii. Thermoplastic and thermosetting resin covering applicable to facades and concrete epidermis
iii. New roof covering and roof tightening materials (accessory covering materials, tightness network), easy to place and standing up well to normal to wear
iv. Large foam component units and new shaping techniques
v. Developing techniques for quick shaping of plastic into large components
vi. Assembling and fixing processes more suitable for plastics
vii. New developments in sanitary equipment and piping, applying thermoplastic and thermosetting resins.
viii. New developments in the way of shuttering and of elements in permanent shuttering
Figure: Solar Plastic Sheets
Table: A uses of plastics in buildings
Form in which it is commonly used
Thin sheets in slabs 12mm thick
Expanded polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Boards 20 to 50 mm thick
Foamed urea formaldehyde
Foamed in situ
Foamed phenol formaldehyde
Sheets and blocks
Sheets and blocks or foamed in situ
Brown or black
Thin sheets, pipes, cisterns
Transparent to black
Domestic drainage, but water overflow tanks
Rainwater goods, ventilation, ducts, pipes of water mains
Sinks and baths
Cold water fittings, window furniture
Adhesives for laminates