Concrete Chemicals (Admixtures) and Applications
Admixtures are materials other than cement, aggregate and water that are added to concrete either before or during its mixing to alter its properties, such as workability, curing temperature range, set time or color. Some admixtures have been in use for a very long time in concrete construction, such as calcium chloride to provide a cold-weather setting concrete.
Based on their functions, admixtures can be classified into the following five major categories:
- Retarding admixtures
- Accelerating admixtures
- Super plasticizers
- Water reducing admixtures
- Air-entraining admixtures
Among other important admixtures that do not fit into these categories are admixtures whose functions include bonding, shrinkage reduction, damp proofing and coloring. The following paragraphs provides details on the above-mentioned categories of concrete admixtures.
Retarding admixtures slow down the hydration of cement, lengthening set time. Retarders are beneficially used in hot weather conditions in order to overcome accelerating effects of higher temperatures and large masses of concrete on concrete setting time. Because most retarders also act as water reducers, they are frequently called water-reducing retarders. As per chemical admixture classification by ASTM-ASTM C 494, type B is simply a retarding admixture, while type D is both retarding and water reducing, resulting in concrete with greater compressive strength because of the lower water-cement ratio.
Retarding admixtures consists of both organic and inorganic agents. Organic retardants include unrefined calcium, sodium, NH4, salts of lignosulfonic acids, hydrocarboxylic acids, and carbohydrates. Inorganic retardants include oxides of lead and zinc, phosphates, magnesium salts, fluorates and borates. As an example of a retardant’s effects on concrete properties, lignosulfate acids and hydroxylated carboxylic acids slow the initial setting time by at least an hour and no more than three hours when used at 65 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The concrete contractor, however, need not memorize these chemical-specific results. Given the specific job requirements and goals, the concrete supplier should offer appropriate admixtures and concrete mixes from which to choose.
Accelerators shorten the set time of concrete, allowing a cold-weather pour, early removal of forms, early surface finishing, and in some cases, early load application. Proper care must be taken while choosing the type and proportion of accelerators, as under most conditions, commonly used accelerators cause an increase in the drying shrinkage of concrete.
Calcium chloride is a common accelerator, used to accelerate the time of set and the rate of strength gain. It should meet the requirements of ASTM D 98. Excessive amounts of calcium chloride in concrete mix may result in rapid stiffening, increase in drying shrinkage and corrosion of reinforcement. In colder climates, calcium chloride should not be used as an anti-freeze. Large amount of calcium chloride is required to lower the freezing point of the concrete, which may ruin the concrete.
Super plasticizers, also known as plasticizers, include water-reducing admixtures. Compared to what is commonly referred to as a “water reducer” or “mid-range water reducer”, super plasticizers are “high-range water reducers”. High range water reducers are admixtures that allow large water reduction or greater flowability (as defined by the manufacturers, concrete suppliers and industry standards) without substantially slowing set time or increasing air entrainment.
Each type of super plasticizer has defined ranges for the required quantities of concrete mix ingredients, along with the corresponding effects. They can maintain a specific consistency and workability at a greatly reduced amount of water. Dosages needed vary by the particular concrete mix and type of super plasticizer used. They can also produce a high strength concrete. As with most types of admixtures, super plasticizers can affect other concrete properties as well. The specific effects, however, should be found from the manufacturer or concrete supplier.
Water reducing admixtures
Water reducing admixtures require less water to make a concrete of equal slump, or increase the slump of concrete at the same water content. They can have the side effect of changing initial set time. Water reducers are mostly used for hot weather concrete placing and to aid pumping. A water-reducer plasticizer, however, is a hygroscopic powder, which can entrain air into the concrete mix via its effect on water’s surface tension, thereby also, obtaining some of the benefits of air-entrainment (see below).
Air-entraining agents entrain small air bubbles in the concrete. The major benefit of this is enhanced durability in freeze-thaw cycles, especially relevant in cold climates. While some strength loss typically accompanies increased air in concrete, it generally can be overcome by reducing the water-cement ratio via improved workability (due to the air-entraining agent itself) or through the use of other appropriate admixtures. As always, admixtures should only be combined in a concrete mix by a competent professional because some of them can interact in undesirable ways.
Bonding admixtures including addition of compounds and materials such as polyvinyl chlorides and acetates, acrylics and butadiene-styrene co-polymers, can be used to assist in bonding new / fresh concrete with old / set concrete.
Coloring agents have become more commonly used, especially for patios and walkways. Most are surface applied and often have the additional effect of surface hardening. Such surface applied coloring admixtures generally should not be used on air-entrained concrete. Integrally colored concrete is also available.
Waterproofing and damp proofing admixtures
Water proofing and damp proofing admixtures including soaps, butyl stearate, mineral oil and asphalt emulsions, are used to decrease the amount of water penetration into the larger pores of concrete. “Antifreeze” admixtures typically are accelerators used in very high doses, with a corresponding high price, to achieve a very fast set-time, though they do not have properties to protect against freezing on their own. However, in general, these are not used for residential work.