Ground Improvement Techniques Essential prerequisite for High Speed corridor is to have control on the degradation of track geometry so as to keep various tolerances well within the specified limits. Degradation of track geometry is a function of Track Design, Axle-Load, Speed, and Sub-Grade characteristics. Improvement of sub-grade in poor ground areas is recognized as(…)
Stress Isobar or Pressure Bulb Concept An isobar or pressure bulb is a stress contour or a line which connects all points below the ground surface at which the vertical pressure is the same. In fact, an isobar is a spatial curved surface and resembles a bulb in shape; this is because the vertical pressure(…)
Reinforced earth is a composite material formed by the friction between the earth and the reinforcement. By means of friction the soil transfers to the reinforcement the forces built up in the earth mass. The reinforcement thus develops tension and the earth behaves as if it has cohesion. COMPONENTS OF REINFORCED EARTH SOIL SKIN REINFORCEMENT(…)
Reinforced Earth or Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) is soil constructed with artificial reinforcing. It can be used for retaining walls, bridge abutments, dams, seawalls, and dikes. Although the basic principles of MSE has been used throughout history, MSE was developed in its current form in the 1960s. The reinforcing elements used can vary but include(…)
The ground can be improved by adapting certain ground improvement techniques. Vibro-compaction increases the density of the soil by using powerful depth vibrators. Vacuum consolidation is used for improving soft soils by using a vacuum pump. Preloading method is used to remove pore water over time. Heating is used to form a crystalline or glass(…)
Soil improvement in its broadest sense is the alteration of any property of a soil to improve its engineering performance. This may be either a temporary process to permit the construction of a facility or may be a permanent measure to improve the performance of the completed facility. The result of an application of a technique may be increased strength, reduced compressibility, reduced permeability, or improved ground water condition.