Braced Walls or (mostly) strut support Soldier pile and lagging walls with anchor or strut support Sheet piling or sheet pile walls with anchor or strut support Pile walls (contiguous, secant) with anchor or strut support Diaphragm walls or slurry trench walls with anchor or strut support Prefabricated diaphragm walls with anchor or strut support(…)
Free-standing retaining walls are constructed in an open excavation and the retained soil is backfilled after construction. Generally free-standing walls are only economically viable on sites where there is sufficient space to compact the sides of the excavation to stable slope.
Reinforced earth is a composite material formed by the friction between the earth and the reinforcement. By means of friction the soil transfers to the reinforcement the forces built up in the earth mass. The reinforcement thus develops tension and the earth behaves as if it has cohesion. COMPONENTS OF REINFORCED EARTH SOIL SKIN REINFORCEMENT(…)
Cantilever wall are usually of reinforced concrete and work on the principles of leverage. Have much thinner stem, and utilize the weight of the backfill soil to provide most of the resistance to sliding and overturning. Most common type of earth- retaining structure. The cantilever retaining wall ("cantilever wall") constructed of reinforced Portland-cement concrete (PCC)(…)
Analysis methods for slope stability are routinely applied by geotechnical engineers. Slope designs, however, are usually based on a "safety factor" which does not account for soil variability (soil variability is due to actual in-place conditions and not due to sampling procedures and/or testing methods). As a result, the true safety of a slope is(…)