There are five levels of environment exposure of concrete for which durability requirements of concrete depends. These are: Mild exposure Moderate exposure Severe exposure Very severe exposure, and Extreme exposure. These are the environments to which the concrete will be exposed during its working life. The durability requirement, like clear cover to reinforcement steel is(…)
Detailing of Beams ? Beam carries transverse external loads that cause bending moment, shear forces and in some cases torsion ? Concrete is strong in compression and very weak in tension. ? Steel reinforcement is used to take up tensile stresses in reinforced concrete beams. ? Mild steel bars or Deformed or High yield strength(…)
DESIGN OF SLAB Slabs are generally designed on the assumption that they consists of a number of beams of breadth ‘one meter’. Effective Span The effective span of a simply supported slab shall be taken as the lesser of the following: Distance between the centers of bearings, Clear span plus effective depth Thickness of Slab(…)
The objectives of structural design is to design the structure for stability, strength and serviceability. It must also be economical and aesthetic.
Design of a reinforced concrete section for shear is carried on in the following steps: (a) Determine nominal shear stress of concrete by using following formula: (b) Determine design shear strength of concrete, (Table 1 below). Table-1: Design Shear Strength of Concrete, (N/mm2) (c) Provide shear reinforcements as per requirement and convenience. Fig: Shear failure(…)
Foundation Foundation is the part of structure below plinth level up to the soil. It is in direct contact of soil and transmits load of super structure to soil. Generally it is below the ground level. If some part of foundation is above ground level, it is also covered with earth filling. This portion of(…)
Wall footings are pad or spread and strip Footings. The basic purpose of this foundation is to spread the load over a larger area so that the soil is able to withstand the stress, and the safe bearing pressure is not exceeded. In such types of foundations, if the resultant of the load deviates from(…)
MULTISTOREY REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS DESIGN A large number of reinforced concrete multistoreyed frame buildings were heavily damaged and many of them collapsed completely in Bhuj earthquake of 2001 in the towns of Kachchh District (viz., Bhuj, Bhachao, Anjar, Gandhidham and Rapar) and other district towns including Surat and Ahmedabad. In Ahmedabad alone situated at more(…)