Interior design is an art of designing the inside space of a building creatively and technically. The designed space should be visually attractive and allow the clients to perform their works. The client or user should not feel discomfort with the position of an object in a space or by the color, size, and shape of an object.
Elements of Interior Design
ColorColor is an important element of interior design. It plays vital role such as client can decide the whole design just by color observation. Colors should be used in such a way that it represents its function and it should facilitate good comfort. Here are some color suggestions for different rooms:
Natural ColorsYellow, green, blue, organic browns etc. are come under natural colors. They gave delicate or bold accent to the interior. Natural colors remind the sense of outdoors. So, these are most suitable for bedrooms, bathrooms etc. where individuals likely to relax or freshen up.
Comfort ColorsColor come under this category are pumpkin orange, cocoa browns, biscuit and wheat colors etc. comfort colors make the room warmth and user will feel relief. These colors are suggested for kitchens, halls etc.
Contrast ColorsDeep red, brisk blacks, whites etc. come under Contrast colors. They give a sophisticated backdrop to the room, so, they are good choice for dining halls, living area etc.
LightLight is an important factor not only as an element of interior design but also as an important consideration for building construction. Proper Light is essential for the users to perform their activities with comfort. The building should utilize maximum natural light or day light during day time for routine activities. Doors, windows, ventilators are used to allow natural light into the interior. Day light factor = (natural light inside the building)/(natural light outside) Daylight factor recommended for different rooms are as follows:
General LightingGeneral lighting or ambient lighting is normal required lighting provided in rooms. It covers all the corners of the room and provides comfort for the users.
Local LightingLocal lighting also called as task lighting in which light source is provided only for the space in which some activity or tasks are performed. The light sources are installed nearer to the task areas.
Accent LightingAccent lighting is similar to local lighting, but it is used for special purposes. Accent lighting is more aesthetic for the observers, so, it is used to highlight the objects, in decorative rooms, etc.
ShapeShape is a dimensional area which is decided by outline of an object. If two or more shapes are combined then it is called a form. Shapes are three types.
Natural ShapesNatural shapes are nothing but shapes of naturally occurred objects like flowers, mountains, clouds etc. These shapes create natural feel in the space.
Geometric ShapesGeometric shapes like square, rectangle, triangle etc. are contain proper area and size. They can be easily provided.
Non-Objective ShapesNon-objective shapes are manmade created artificially by colors, random edges and lines etc.
SpaceSpace is an important element of interior design. Space is nothing but the area available to allow different purposes. Space can be divided into two types.
- Two-dimensional space
- Three-dimensional space
LineLine is a mark which defines shapes and create forms. In general Lines are of three types as follows
- Horizontal lines
- Vertical lines
- Dynamic lines
TextureTexture is nothing but a feel created by looking at an object or by touching it. In interior design, Texture is generally divided as
- Visual texture
- Actual texture
Principles of Interior Design
- Scale and Proportion
- Unity and variety
BalanceThe principle of balance is to keep the user brain in equilibrium. Balance of a space can be attained by three methods as follows
Symmetrical BalanceIn this case, the whole space is divided into two halves by central axis. The objects are placed in similar positions in both sides of axis. One side of axis is like mirror image to the other side.
Asymmetrical BalanceIn this case, odd number of elements are used. An imaginary central axis is assumed and visually attractive elements are placed near the imaginary axis and dull objects are placed farther from axis.
Radial BalanceIn radial balance, a central point is considered around which the objects are arranged radially in a circular manner.
EmphasisThe design principle of emphasis suggests that the central point or focal point of a space should be more attractive and all other elements of that space should be emerged from that point. So, the focal point should be carefully designed with impressive texture, color, size and shape.
ContrastThe principle of contrast refers to the change in the color or luminance of objects. One object may be bright color and object next to it may be light color here contrast varies. Likewise, contrast can be achieved by form and space. Contrast makes dull objects more beautiful by placing it next to brighter objects.
Scale and ProportionScale and proportion, both suggests about the relationship between two different objects or two parts of an object. Scale refers only size while proportion refers magnitude, quality, color etc.
RhythmThe design principle of Rhythm is based on the arrangement of elements of interior design in a space. The arrangement should create a rhythm in mind while looking at it. There are three types of methods to achieve rhythm: