The concept of a green building was developed in the 1970s in response to the energy crisis and people's growing concerns about the environment.
A Green Building, also known as a sustainable building, is a structure that is designed, built, renovated, operated, or re-used in an ecological and resource efficient manner.
Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we & future generations depend
Objectives of a green building:
Protecting occupant health
Improving employee productivity
Using energy, water and other resources more efficiently
Reducing overall impact to the environment
Optimal environmental and economic performance
Satisfying and quality indoor spaces
Considerations of a green building:
Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use
Limit disruption of natural water hydrology by reducing impervious cover, increasing on-site infiltration and managing storm water run-off
Encourage and recognize increasing levels of self supply through renewable technologies to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use
Provide a high level of individual occupant control of ventilation and lighting systems to support good health, better productivity and a comfortable atmosphere
Provide a connection between indoor spaces and outdoor environment through the introduction of sunlight and views into the occupied areas of the building.
How to make a building green:
Building insulation (walls of AEC block and roof with over deck insulation and roof lawn)?
Window shading (fixed overhangs)?
Envelope efficiency measures contributed to 12% savings over base case
Energy efficient lighting (CFLs , efficient tube lights and electronic ballasts)?
Daylight sensing (90% lighting energy savings)?
Efficient chillers, Variable air volume systems.
Wind towers for pre cooling of fresh air.
Lighting efficiency measures contributed to 15% savings over base case and HVAC efficiency measures contributed 20% savings over base case.
Constitutes a green building
A) Sustainable Site:
Appropriate site selection.
Effective use of nature.
Soil erosion control.
B) Water use efficiency:
Capture storm water from impervious areas of the building for ground water re-charge or reuse.
Do not use potable water for landscape irrigation. Use recycled water/storm water.
Install moisture denser on plants for water conservation.
Use recycled water for toilet flushing.
Use ultra high efficiency water fittings and controls.
Monitor water consumption through on-line controls.
C) Energy efficient and eco-friendly equipment:
Design orientation of the building to get maximum day-lighting.
Use green wall and green roof to avoid heat gain into the building.
Adopt spectrally natural glass materials such that it reduces heat gain, minimize lighting of landscape features.
Use of energy efficient goods
Use zero CFC base refrigerants in refrigeration and air-conditioning system.
Use of renewable energy to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use.
Establish Baseline data for energy consumption
D) Eco-friendly building materials and resources:
Recyclable and Salvage materials.
Material from local sources mitigating / reducing environmental impact.
Impact of manufacturing and transportation.
Material pollutant management
Health Hazard management of workers on site.
Material storage methodologies.
E) Indoor air quality:
Distribution channels for air intake movement and exhaust
Climate and pollution monitoring systems.
Elimination of chemically toxic materials and devices.
Maintenance of optimum temperature and humidity.
F) Energy system management:
30% to 40% saving in operation costs.
Alternative energy system design
Optimization of Conventional Energy.
Building management, control and monitoring systems.