High-rise buildings have unique challenges related to fire protection such as longer egress times and distance, evacuation strategies, fire department accessibility, smoke movement and fire control. The numbers of persons living on high-rise buildings are high compared to low-rise buildings, and only evacuation method in case of fire is the staircase. So, the fire protections of high rise buildings have gained significant attention worldwide.
Thus, in case of high rise buildings, the following provision should be made for safety of buildings from fire:
(i) National building code should be followed for fire-safety requirement of high rise structures and at least one lift should be designed as fire-lift as defined in the Code and be installed.
(ii) At least one stair-case shall be provided as a fire staircase as defined in the National Building Code. Provided that this shall not be applicable if any two sides of a staircase are kept totally open to external open air space.
(iii) Water Supply: Underground tank of the capacity of one lakh liters and two lakh liters for the buildings situated within the municipal limit and outside of the municipal limit respectively be invariably provided in all the high rise buildings. Water in the normal use tank should come only through the overflow of fire tank so provided.
(iv) In high rise buildings, the internal fire hydrants shall be installed as provided in the National Building Code or as prescribed in the Indian Standard Code of practice for installation of internal fire hydrants in high rise buildings. The detailed plan showing the arrangement of pipe lines, booster pumps and water-tanks at various levels shall be submitted for approval of the concerned authority along with the plans and sections of the buildings.
(v) In case of high rise buildings, an external fire hydrant shall be provided within the confines of the site of the building and shall be connected with Municipal Water mains not less than 4" in diameter. In addition, fire hydrant shall be connected with Booster Pump from the static supply maintained on site.
(vi) In case of high rise buildings separate electric circuits for lift installation, lighting of passages, corridors and stairs and for internal fire hydrant system shall be provided.
(vii) All the requirements under the above regulations shall be clearly indicated on plans duly signed by the owner and the person who has prepared the plans. The Competent Authority may direct the owner to submit such further drawings as may be necessary to clarify the implementation of the provisions of the above regulations.
(viii) Every building having a height of more than 25 Mts. shall be provided with diesel generators which can be utilized in case of failure of the electricity.
(ix) The standard of National Building Code must be adopted fully in providing stair-case and alarm system.
(x) There should be Provision of dry-powder fire extinguisher to the extent of two on each floor with a capacity of 5 kgs, in all the high rise buildings.