By the year 2050 it is estimated that residential, commercial and institutional buildings will consume 38% of global energy and release 3800 mega tones of carbon in the atmosphere. Climate change by itself can also precipitate larger energy demand as people seek greater comfort levels in more extreme conditions. The first Government Green building is coming up as the IGP office in Gulbarga, Karnataka. 25 million sq. ft. of green buildings are being constructed all over India and more than 100 buildings have reportedly registered for LEED rating programme. The market for green building materials and products is estimated to reach Rs.15000 crores by 2010.
What are Green Buildings?
- Environmentally responsible, profitable, healthy places to live, work and learn
- Use minimum of non-renewable energy, produce minimum of pollution, use minimum of water and other resources, cost minimum of energy money - while increasing comfort, health, and safety of people who live and work in them
Examples of LEED criteria
- brown-field redevelopment
- access to existing transit and utilities
- use of locally available or minimally transported materials
- use of recycled or naturally replenishable materials
- avoidance of materials that emit noxious gases or particles
- use of solar energy, daylight and natural ventilation
- recapture of waste heat
- capture of rainwater and recycling of wastewater
- efficiency of building form
- tightness and insulating efficacy of building skin
- Ecologically sensitive landscaping.
What is Green Development?
Design strategies or technologies that
- integrate the resource conservation technologies developed in "green building" design with the living environment and across larger spatial scales
- reduce the environmental impacts of human land use on a variety of ecosystem functions and services
- reduce energy dependence and energy use for transportation and other applications
- Product/component manufacturers
- Landscape architecture
- Energy systems/conservation
- Wood products
- Horticultural products
- And more….
Green Building Concept and Potential in Delhi
- The construction sector, particularly, real estate is growing at a phenomenal pace in Delhi. The crucial issue is whether such construction is customer friendly. Green building encompasses the following:
- In harmony with the natural features surrounding the site.
- Minimizes use of toxic and hazardous substances in design, construction, and use of building premises.
- Controls air, water and sound pollution through efficient technology.
- Takes recourse to recycling of waste including wastewater, waste paper, biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste and electronic waste. Green architecture implies waste minimization designs and waste recycling solutions within the building.
- Uses non-renewable energy sources like solar energy to preserve the environment and ensure energy savings.
- Adopts Rainwater harvesting structures to recharge ground water during monsoon and its efficient use.
- The building sector has the single largest potential for energy efficiency and it is estimated that 20% savings are clearly possible by adopting the green building concept.
- Significant export potential for green products and expertise in structural, planning, design, and materials development aspects of green building and development
- Recent international alliance of leading global companies (eg United Technologies) focused on the design and construction of “zero net energy” buildings that are carbon neutral
- China incorporating green design into development of “New Cities” and redevelopment of urban areas
Directions to all Departments of the Govt.
- Under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001, the following directions have been issued by the Govt. of Delhi:
- Mandatory use of Solar Water Heating Systems
- Mandatory use of CFLs and Electronic Chokes in Government Buildings and Government Aided Institutions, Boards, Corporations
- Mandatory use of ISI marked Motor Pump sets, Power Capacitors, Foot/Reflex Valves etc. in agriculture sector.
- In consultation with the Manufacturers and Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (GOI), Rs.6,000/- is given as rebate/incentive to domestic user of SWH.
- The Energy & Resources Institute, New Delhi appointed as Consultant forimplementation of the various provisions of the Energy Conservation Act in the State.
- In selected areas of three DISCOMs, viz. I.P. Extension, Vikaspuri & Rohini Sector- 9 awareness on Energy Efficiency is created among the members of RWAs. Booklet on Solar Water Heater & FAQ on Akshay Urja for children has been published.
- NDMC has installed energy efficient lighting systems and electronic chokes resulting in 1000 KW reduction in demand so far till 2006. In the year 2008, it will be to the tune of 560 KW and 2000 KW in 2009.
Green Buildings by Delhi Government Departments
For the Green Building concept, several departments of the Delhi Govt. are taking the following steps:
- Municipal Corporation of Delhi is adopting this concept in its 28 storeyed new civic center coming up at Minto Road and in its multilevel car parking.
- Delhi Transco Ltd. is constructing its Corporate office of 9000 sq. m. with the Energy conservation Building Code (ECBC). This will cut down power consumption by 30%.
- PWD proposes to adopt the concept of green building in their 500 bedded GTB Hospital, Dwaraka Hospital, Thiagraja Sports Complex and Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
- PWD will adopt optimum energy efficiency in air conditioning, lighting, water saving systems and fixtures, use of solar energy for water heating and lighting, rainwater harvesting system and Effluent Treatment Plants (ETPs) etc. PWD is also working towards climatic control in its buildings to conserve energy. It is experimenting with trenchless technology and pollution free Hot Mix Plant.
- Delhi International Airport Ltd. (DIAL) is planning to construct large terminalbuildings and also the additional runway and is keen for adoption of green building technologies and energy efficient lighting etc.
- Delhi Government is implementing the MOEF notification regarding mandatory use of fly-ash bricks or blocks or tiles by all construction agencies in Delhi.
- DDA is planning to convert the entire Games village for the Commonwealth Games into a green building. CPWD is also working on green stadia for the Commonwealth Games.
- The Traffic Police has been asked by the Environment Department to adopt LED technology in all their traffic signals in Delhi since LED’s have 11 years life and are without mercury.
- All these projects will be created as CDM projects and Dept. of Environment is regularly monitoring all such activities.
- CPWD has estimated that retrofit arrangement for lighting and air-conditioning can result in 50% saving of energy in all public utility buildings.