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- Construction Equipments for Different Purposes
- Construction Equipments for Excavation and Loading
- Construction Equipments for Compaction and Grading
- Construction Equipments for Drilling and Blasting
- Construction Equipments for Lifting and Erecting
- Construction Equipments for Mixing and Paving
- Construction Tools and Other Equipments
- Automation of Construction Equipments
Construction Equipments for Different PurposesThe selection of the appropriate type and size of construction equipments often affects the required amount of time and effort and thus the job-site productivity of a project. It is therefore important for site managers and construction planners to be familiar with the characteristics of the major types of equipment most commonly used in construction.
Construction Equipments for Excavation and LoadingOne family of construction machines used for excavation is broadly classified as a crane-shovel as indicated by the variety of machines in Figure 1. The crane-shovel consists of three major components:
- A carrier or mounting which provides mobility and stability for the machine.
- A revolving deck or turntable which contains the power and control units.
- A front end attachment which serves the special functions in an operation.
Figure 1 Typical Machines in the Crane-Shovel FamilyA tractor consists of a crawler mounting and a non-revolving cab. When an earth moving blade is attached to the front end of a tractor, the assembly is called a bulldozer. When a bucket is attached to its front end, the assembly is known as a loader or bucket loader. There are different types of loaders designed to handle most efficiently materials of different weights and moisture contents. Scrapers are multiple-units of tractor-truck and blade-bucket assemblies with various combinations to facilitate the loading and hauling of earthwork. Major types of scrapers include single engine two-axle or three axle scrapers, twin-engine all-wheel-drive scrapers, elevating scrapers, and push-pull scrapers. Each type has different characteristics of rolling resistance, maneuverability stability, and speed in operation.
Construction Equipments for Compaction and GradingThe function of compaction equipment is to produce higher density in soil mechanically. The basic forces used in compaction are static weight, kneading, impact and vibration. The degree of compaction that may be achieved depends on the properties of soil, its moisture content, the thickness of the soil layer for compaction and the method of compaction. Some major types of compaction equipment are shown in Figure 2, which includes rollers with different operating characteristics. The function of grading equipment is to bring the earthwork to the desired shape and elevation. Major types of grading equipment include motor graders and grade trimmers. The former is an all-purpose machine for grading and surface finishing, while the latter is used for heavy construction because of its higher operating speed.
Figure 2: Some Major Types of Compaction Equipments