The Constructor

Types of Documents for Heavy Civil Construction Projects

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Types of design and construction documents for heavy civil projects such as engineering design documents, bid documents, construction documents are discussed.

Types of Documents for Heavy Civil Construction Projects

Engineering Design Documents

Generally, engineering design documents are divided into two major types including documents for not construction and documents for construction.

Documents for Not Construction

It involves all designs for instance conceptual design which is produced prior to the final design of the project. Commonly, documents for not construction are considered as studies.

Design reports, design drawings, data reports, and engineering cost estimates are all products of the study phase of the structure. These design documents are used to assess technical and cost feasibility of different alternatives and options to obtain project purpose and objectives.

Finally, the detailing provided in these documents is less than those provided in the final design. However, it should provide sufficient detailing to illustrate concept and constructability of the structure in addition to provide a reliable construction cost evaluation.

Documents for Construction

Documents for construction are produced at the final design stage. Examples of these documents include construction drawings and technical specifications, design reports, engineer’s cost estimates, and bid schedule.

Number of these documents is produced for the owner whereas others are utilized by contractor, construction manager, and inspector for bidding and Construction.

Bid Documents

Bid documents are prepared so as to provide necessary information to bidders during bidding period. It contains administrative, contractual, and technical requirements. Added to that, bid documents clarify tasks and responsibility of the owner, contractor, and the engineer. Table 1 provides various types of bid document along with their descriptions.

Table-1: Types of bid documents along with their descriptions

Types of Bid documents Brief description of bid document types
Invitation to bid It involves some of the information employed in the advertisement. So, it is used in advertisement to solicit bidders for construction work.
Instructions to Bidders Not only does it provide bidding procedure but also it contains basis and criteria for the bid assessment.
Bid forms It is submitted by bidder and it contains their bid prices.
General conditions and supplemental conditions These documents are provided to bidder during bidding process and they will become part of legal contract document after the contacted is being awarded.
Construction drawing and technical specifications All technical requirements for construction of the structure.
Amendments It is changes that initiated by owner or new information that furnished to the bidders during bidding process. These documents will become part of the contract after it has been awarded.

Construction Documents

These documents are utilized for building the project after the bid is awarded. Construction documents of heavy civil projects are typically composed of agreement, general conditions, supplemental conditions, payment schedule, construction drawings, and technical specifications.

All construction documents are assumed to be a legal document that is why their contents shall be rigorously conformed so as to prevent disputes, ambiguity, and conflicts.

Moreover, construction drawings, technical specifications, and pricing schedule are prepared by the engineer whereas other documents are furnished by the owner.

Lastly, Table 2 provides brief description of different types of construction document.

Table-2: Types of construction documents with brief descriptions

Types of construction documents Brief description of construction document types
Agreement It is a legal document that signed by owner and contractor.
General conditions Explain tasks and responsibilities of owner, contractor, and engineer.
Supplemental conditions it addresses specifications related to the site and site-exclusive characteristics for each construction project, so it is an extension of general condition.
Construction drawing and technical requirements These documents contains all drawings with great details and technical requirements for the construction of the project
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