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What is Soil Liquefaction? Causes and Importance

Soil liquefaction is the phenomenon in which the stiffness and the strength of the soil are lost under the action of earthquake force or due to rapid loading conditions. Soil liquefaction occurs in a fully saturated soil. Principle and Causes of ...

Floating Caissons

In certain cities and even countries the demand for land and space is rapidly exceeding the supply. Maritime centers do not escape from this reality, the continuous expansion of commercial maritime traffic and activities in seaports due to increases in ...


Electro osmotic consolidation means the consolidation of soft clays by the application of electric current. It was studied and applied for the first time by Casagrande. ...

Methods of Installing Pile Foundations

The installation process and methods of pile foundations are equally important factors as of the design process. Pile foundation installation methods are by pile hammer and boring by mechanical auger.To avoid damages to the piles, during design, installation Methods and ...


Piles can be arranged in a number of ways so that they can support load imposed on them. Vertical piles can be designed to carry vertical loads as well as lateral loads. If required, vertical piles can be combined with ...

Types of Piles Based on Load Transfer, Function, Material and Soil

Types of Piles for Pile Foundation Based on Load Transfer and Function Classification of piles with respect to load transmission and functional behavior are:End bearing piles (point bearing piles) Friction piles (cohesion piles ) Combination of friction and cohesion pilesEnd ...

Backfilling in Foundation : Types and Procedure

What Is Backfilling? In construction, backfilling is the process of replacing or reusing the soil that is removed during building construction to strengthen and support a structure’s foundation or any other structural member.[caption id="attachment_22335" align="aligncenter" width="600"]