## The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home for Civil Engineers

The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home provides informational resources to Civil Engineers around the globe on various subjects such as construction management, Structural Engineering, Building Construction Tips, How to Guides for Civil Engineers etc.

## TRANSVERSE STRENGTH TEST ON ROOFING TILES

AIM To determine the breaking load of clay roofing tiles (Mangalore pattern) APPARATUS The tile testing machine The unit consists of an angle iron frame. A double lever system with a ratio 1: 12 provided for applying the load. The lower lever is supported ...

## WATER ABSORPTION TEST ON BRICKS

Aim To determine the percentage of water absorption of bricks Apparatus A sensitive balance capable of weighing within 0.1% of the mass of the specimen and ventilated oven Specimen Three numbers of whole bricks from samples collected for testing should be taken. Procedure (I) Dry the specimen ...

## SEISMIC DESIGN PHILOSOPHY FOR BUILDINGS

The Earthquake Problem Severity of ground shaking at a given location during an earthquake can be minor, moderate and strong. Relatively speaking, minor shaking occurs frequently, moderate shaking occasionally and strong shaking rarely. For instance, on average annually about 800 ...

## PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY HYDROMETER METHOD

TO DETERMINE THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY HYDROMETER METHOD Theory: Hydrometer method is used to determine the particle size distribution of fine-grained soils passing 75 sieve. The hydrometer measures ...

## PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY SEIVING

TO DETERMINE THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF A SOIL BY SEIVING Theory: The soil is sieved through a set of sieves. The material retained on different sieves is determined. The percentage of material retained on any sieve is given by

## ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES & EARTHQUAKE

Importance of Architectural Features The behaviour of a building during earthquakes depends critically on its overall shape, size and geometry, in addition to how the earthquake forces are carried to the ground. Hence, at the planning stage itself, architects and structural ...

## SEISMIC EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES

What are the Seismic Effects on Structures? Inertia Forces in Structures Earthquake causes shaking of the ground. So a building resting on it will experience motion at its base. From Newton’s First Law of Motion, even though the base of the ...

## DRY DENSITY OF SOIL BY WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD

TO DETERMINE THE DRY DENSITY OF A SOIL SAMPLE BY WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD Theory: A soil specimen of regular shape is coated with paraffin wax to make it impervious to water. The total volume (V1) of the waxed specimen is found by ...

## IN-SITU DRY DENSITY BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD

TO DETERMINE IN-SITU DRY DENSITY BY SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD Theory: A hole of specified dimensions is excavated in the ground. The mass of the excavated soil is determined. The volume of the hole is determined by filling it with clean, uniform sand whose ...

## SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL BY PYCNOMETER METHOD

How to Determine Specific Gravity of Soil by Pycnometer Method? The Pycnometer is used for determination of the specific gravity of soil particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. The specific gravity of soil is determined using the relation: