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The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home for Civil Engineers

The Constructor - Civil Engineering Home provides informational resources to Civil Engineers in United States of America, India, United Kingdom, Australia and around the world on various subjects such as construction management, Structural Engineering, Building Construction Tips, How to Guides for Civil Engineers etc.

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SEISMIC EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES

What are the Seismic Effects on Structures? Inertia Forces in Structures Earthquake causes shaking of the ground. So a building resting on it will experience motion at its base. From Newton’s First Law of Motion, even though the base of the ...

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DRY DENSITY OF SOIL BY WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD

TO DETERMINE THE DRY DENSITY OF A SOIL SAMPLE BY WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD Theory: A soil specimen of regular shape is coated with paraffin wax to make it impervious to water. The total volume (V1) of the waxed specimen is found by ...

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Determine In-Situ Dry Density by Sand Replacement Method

To Determine In-Situ Dry Density by Sand Replacement Method A hole of specified dimensions is excavated in the ground. The mass of the excavated soil is determined. The volume of the hole is determined by filling it with clean, uniform sand whose dry ...

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL BY PYCNOMETER METHOD

How to Determine Specific Gravity of Soil by Pycnometer Method? The Pycnometer is used for determination of the specific gravity of soil particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. The specific gravity of soil is determined using the relation:

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SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLIDS BY DENSITY BOTTLE METHOD

TO DETERMINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE SOLIDS BY DENSITY BOTTLE METHOD Theory; The specific gravity of solid particles is the ratio of the mass density of solids to that water. It is determined in the laboratory using the relation:

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MAGNITUDE & INTENSITY OF EARTHQUAKE

The point on the fault where slip starts is the Focus or Hypocenter, and the point vertically above this on the surface of the Earth is the Epicenter (Figure 1). The depth of focus from the epicenter, called as Focal ...

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HOW THE GROUND SHAKES DURING EARTHQUAKE

Seismic Waves Large strain energy released during an earthquake travels as seismic waves in all directions through the Earth’s layers, reflecting and refracting at each interface. These waves are of two types – body waves and surface waves; the latter are ...

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Marshall Stability Test – Flow Test on Bitumen

Mississippi State Highway Department formulated Marshall stability test – flow test on bitumen and is applicable to hot mix design of bitumen and aggregates of maximum size 2.5 cm. Bituminous concrete mix is commonly designed by Marshall Method. This test is extensively ...

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STABILITY OF SLOPES

A slope is an inclined boundary surface between air and the body of an earthwork such as highways, cut or fill, railway cut or fill, earth dams, levees and river training works. The stability of slope is one the most ...

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FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST

AIM: To determine the flash and fire point of bitumen APPARATUS: Pensky-Marten Closed Tester, Thermometer THEORY: Bituminous material leave out volatiles at high temperatures depending upon their grade. These volatile vapours catch fire causing a flash. The flash point is the lowest temperature at ...

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