The Constructor

Centrifugal Pump – Components, Working, Types and Application

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Centrifugal pump is a hydraulic machine which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy by the use of centrifugal force acting on the fluid. These are the most popular and commonly used type of pumps for the transfer of fluids from low level to high level. Its is used in places like agriculture, municipal (water and wastewater plants), industrial, power generation plants, petroleum, mining, chemical, pharmaceutical and many others.
Centrifugal Pump

Fig 1: Centrifugal Pump

When a certain mass of liquid is made to rotate by an external source, it is thrown away from the centrifugal axis of rotation and a  head is impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level. Centrifugal Pumps can be used for viscous and non-viscous liquids and has higher efficiency. This article emphasises on main part of centrifugal pump,

Main Parts of Centrifugal Pump

The Main parts of Centrifugal Pump are:

1. Impeller

It is a wheel or rotor which is provided with a series of backward curved blades or vanes. It is mounded on the shaft which is coupled to an external source of energy which imparts the liquid energy to the impeller there by making it to rotate.

Fig 2: Open, Semi Enclosed and Enclosed Impeller.

Impellers are divided into 3 types,
  1. Open Impeller
  2. Semi enclosed Impeller
  3. Enclosed Impeller

2. Casing

It is a pipe which is connected at the upper end to the inlet of the pump to the centre of impeller which is commonly known as eye. The double end reaction pump consists of two suction pipe connected to the eye from both sides. The lower end dips into liquid in to lift. The lower end is fitted in to foot valve and strainer.

Fig 3: Main Components of Centrifugal Pump.

Commonly three types of casing are used in centrifugal pump,
  1. Volute Casing
  2. Vortex Casing
  3. Casing with Guide Blades

3. Delivery Pipe

It is a pipe which is connected at its lower end to the out let of the pump and it delivers the liquid to the required height. Near the outlet of the pump on the delivery pipe, a valve is provided which controls the flow from the pump into delivery pipe.

4. Suction Pipe with Foot Valve and Strainer

suction pipe is connected with the inlet of the impeller and the other end is dipped into the sump of water. At the water end, it consists of foot value and strainer. The foot valve is a one way valve that opens in the upward direction. The strainer is used to filter the unwanted particle present in the water to prevent the centrifugal pump from blockage.

Working of Centrifugal Pump

The first step in the operation of a centrifugal pump is priming. Priming is the operation in which suction pipe casing of the pump and the position of fluid with the liquid which is to be pumped so that all the air from the position of pump is driven out and no air is left. The necessity of priming of a centrifugal pump is due to the fact that the pressure generated at the centrifugal pump impeller is directly proportional to density of fluid that is in contact with it.

Fig 4: Working of Centrifugal Pump.

After the pump is primed the delivery valve is still kept closed and electric motor is started to rotate the impeller. The delivery valve is kept closed in order to reduce valve is opened the liquid is made to flow in an outward radial direction there by vanes of impeller at the outer circumference with high velocity at outer circumference due to centrifugal action vacuum is created. This cause liquid from sump to rush through suction pipe to eye of impeller thereby replacing long discharge from center circumference of the impeller is utilized in lifting liquid to required height through delivery pipe.  

Types of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps are classified into many types based on many categories, they are

Based on number of impellers in the pump,

  1. Single stage pump
  2. Two-stage pump
  3. Multi-stage pump

Based on orientation of case-split,

  1. Axial split Pump
  2. Radial split Pump

Based on type of impeller design,

  1. Single suction Pump
  2. Double suction Pump

Based on the basis compliance with industry standards,

  1. ANSI pump – (American National Standards Institute)
  2. API pump – (American Petroleum Institute)
  3. DIN pump – DIN 24256 specifications
  4. ISO pump – ISO 2858, 5199 specifications
  5. Nuclear pump – ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) specifications

Based on type of volute

  1. Single volute Pump
  2. Double volute Pump

Based on where the bearing support is,

  1. Overhung
  2. Between-bearing

Based on on shaft orientation

  1. Horizontal Pump
  2. Vertical Pump

Application of Centrifugal Pumps

  1. Oil & Energy - pumping crude oil, slurry, mud; used by refineries, power generation plants
  2. Industrial & Fire Protection Industry - Heating and ventilation, boiler feed applications, air conditioning, pressure boosting, fire protection sprinkler systems.
  3. Waste Management, Agriculture & Manufacturing - Wastewater processing plants, municipal industry, drainage, gas processing, irrigation, and flood protection
  4. Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Food Industries - paints, hydrocarbons, petro-chemical, cellulose, sugar refining, food and beverage production
  5. Various industries (Manufacturing, Industrial, Chemicals, Pharmaceutical, Food Production, Aerospace etc.) - for the purposes of cryogenics and refrigerants.
Read More : Kaplan Turbine – its Components, Working and Application
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