The Constructor

Experimental Verification of Bernoulli’s Theorem

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The procedure of Laboratory experiment to verify Bernoulli’s theorem, required apparatus and calculations to be done are explained in this article.

Bernoulli’s theorem states - For a continuous, steady and frictionless flow the total head (which is the sum of pressure head, velocity head and elevation head) at any section remains constant.

Total Head = pressure head + velocity head + elevation head

H = P/w + V2 / 2g + Z

According to Bernoulli’ theorem, Total head at any two sections is expressed as :

Apparatus required

Apparatus required to conduct Bernoulli’s experiment are :

Fig 1: Bernoulli's Experiment Apparatus

Test Procedure

Test procedure to verify Bernoulli’s experiment is as follows :

Fig 2: Bernoulli's Apparatus Parts


Pressure head or Piezometer readings, P/w =

Area of cross section of tapered pipe under piezometer tubes = A1, A2, A3…….

Area of Measuring tank, A =

Height of water collected for “t” interval of time =

Elevation head, Z =


Volume of water Collected in measuring tank (V) = Area of measuring tank (A) X height of water collected for “t” interval of time (h)

Discharge Q = volume / time = V/t

Velocity of flow, v = Discharge / Area of cross section of tapered pipe

Velocities under each piezometer tube are v1 = Q/A1,

v2 = Q/A2,

v3 = Q/A3………

Velocity head = v2 / 2g

Total Head = P/w + V2 / 2g + Z Discharge, Q  (cm3/sec) Area of c/s under each piezometer (cm2) Velocity of flow under each piezometer (cm/sec) Pressure Head, P/w (cm) Velocity Head, v2 / 2g (cm) Elevation Head, Z (cm) Total Head (cm)
1   A1 v1        
2   A2 v2        
3   A3 v3        
4   A4 v4        
5   A5 v5        


Hence, Bernoulli’s theorem is proved and It can be expressed as,

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