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## What will be Volume of Concrete for Given Cement Sand and Aggregate Quantity?

## Gopal Mishra

Volume of fully compacted concrete is given by following formula: where Vc is the volume of concrete. W, C, Fa and Ca are the masses of water, cement, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates respectively. Density of cement = 1500 kg/m3, fine aggregates = 1700 kg/m3 and coarse aggregates = 1650 kg/m3.Read more

Volume of fully compacted concrete is given by following formula:

where V

_{c}is the volume of concrete. W, C, F_{a}and C_{a}are the masses of water, cement, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates respectively.Density of cement = 1500 kg/m

^{3}, fine aggregates = 1700 kg/m^{3}and coarse aggregates = 1650 kg/m^{3}.So, Weight of cement C = 0.25 x 1500 = 375kg

Weight of Fine aggregates F

_{a}= 0.25 x 1700 = 425 kgWeight of Coarse aggregates C

_{a}= 0.5 x 1650 = 825 kgConsider w/c ratio as 0.45, so weight of water = 0.45×0.25×1000 = 112.5 L or kg

S

_{c}, S_{fa}and S_{ca}are the specific weight of cement, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates which are 3.15 for cement and 2.6 for fine and coarse aggregates.Therefore, putting these values in the formula above, we get

V

_{c}= (112.5/1000)+(375/(1000×3.15))+(425/(1000×2.6))+(825/(1000×2.6)) = 0.712m^{3}So, Volume of concrete = 0.712m

See less^{3}## What are Bearing Capacity Values of Different Types of Soil?

## Gopal Mishra

Following table shows maximum bearing capacity values of different types of soils: Types of Soil Bearing Capacity (Kg/m2) Bearing Capacity (kN/m2) Soft, wet clay or muddy clay 5000 50 Soft clay 10000 100 Fine, loose and dry sand 10000 100 Black cotton soil 15000 150 Moist clay and sand clay MixtureRead more

Following table shows maximum bearing capacity values of different types of soils:

Types of SoilBearing Capacity (Kg/m^{2})Bearing Capacity (kN/m^{2})Bearing capacity of soil is the maximum load per unit area. This is the ultimate bearing capacity of soil shown in table. Dividing the ultimate soil bearing capacity by a safety factor we get the maximum safe bearing capacity of soil for design of foundations.

See less## How to Measure Loads and Pressures on Geotechnical Structures?

## Gopal Mishra

Please be specific about your question. Provide more details to get answers.

Please be specific about your question. Provide more details to get answers.

See less## How Aggregate Cement Ratio Affect Workability of Concrete?

## Gopal Mishra

Factors which affect workability of concrete are: Cement content of concrete Water content of concrete Mix proportions of concrete Size of aggregates Shape of aggregates Grading of aggregates Surface texture of aggregates Use of admixtures in concrete Use of supplementary cementitious materials RefeRead more

## Factors which affect workability of concrete are:

Refer this article for more details:Â

Factors Affecting Workability of ConcreteEffect of Aggregate Cement Ratio on Workability of ConcreteAggregate cement ratio is the ratio of weights of aggregate to the weight of cement. If this ratio is more, that implies aggregates are more and cement is less and if this ratio is less, that implies weight of aggregate is less and weight of cement is more (relatively).

When the weight of cement is more, i.e. aggregate cement ratio is less, the concrete has more cement paste required to coat aggregates and fill the voids between them. This more cement paste makes the concrete relatively easy toÂ mix, place and compact as it reduces the friction between aggregates and allows its smooth movement. Thus the workability of concrete increases.

When the weight of cement is less, i.e. aggregate cement ratio is more, then there will be very less cement paste to coat aggregate surfaces and fill the voids, thus, mixing, placing and compacting of concrete will be more harder than previous case. This implies, the workability of concrete will be less than previous case.

See lessReference:Â Factors Affecting Workability of Concrete## Which Type of Chemical Cleaner used for Efflorescence Removal?

## Gopal Mishra

Read following articles regarding efflorescence which may give you an idea about removal of efflorescence: What is Efflorescence on Brick Masonry, Its Causes and Treatment Techniques? Methods to Reduce Efflorescence in Newly Constructed Masonry Walls

Read following articles regarding efflorescence which may give you an idea about removal of efflorescence:

What is Efflorescence on Brick Masonry, Its Causes and Treatment Techniques?Methods to Reduce Efflorescence in Newly Constructed Masonry Walls## What should be Minimum Ceiling Height for a Large Bedroom?

## Gopal Mishra

Minimum Ceiling Height as per International Building Code The International Building Code (IBC) is used for commercial buildings and any building that contains more than two dwelling units, such as apartment buildings. Minimum ceiling height in these buildings must be 7 feet 6 inches in hallways, coRead more

Minimum Ceiling Height as per International Building CodeThe International Building Code (IBC) is used for commercial buildings and any building that contains more than two dwelling units, such as apartment buildings.

Minimum ceiling height in these buildings must be

7 feet 6 inchesin hallways, common areas and habitable rooms.Minimum Ceiling Height as per International Residential CodeAccording the the IRC, all habitable rooms must have a minimum ceiling height of 7 feet. Habitable rooms include bedrooms, living spaces and kitchens but exclude bathrooms, hallways, utility spaces and closets.

A ceiling with exposed beams spaced at least 4 feet apart can measure 6 feet 6 inches from the floor to the underside of the beams. Minimum ceiling height in bathrooms is 6 feet 8 inches.

Reference:Â ICC IRC (2012): International Residential CodeMinimum Height for Sloped CeilingsThe minimum ceiling height in rooms with sloped ceilings (such as a finished attic space) is 7 feet over at least 50 percent of the room area. Room area is this case is calculated as the total floor space with walls at least 5 feet tall.

Areas with ceilings lower than 5 feet are allowed but do not count toward the official room area total (IRC rules also include minimum floor space for most habitable rooms).

Basement ExceptionsUnder the IRC, basements with no bedrooms or living areas may have ceilings 6 feet 8 inches high with beams and ductwork at a minimum height of 6 feet 4 inches.

See less## What is Stress Ribbon Bridge?

## Gopal Mishra

See the attachment.

See the attachment.

See less## What is Stress Ribbon Bridge?

## Gopal Mishra

A stressed ribbon bridge is a tension structure which is similar to a simple suspension bridge. The suspension cables in a stressed ribbon bridge are embedded in the deck which follows a catenary arc between supports. Unlike the simple suspension spans which tends to sway and bounce, the ribbon is sRead more

A stressed ribbon bridge is a tension structure which is similar to a simple suspension bridge. The suspension cables in a stressed ribbon bridge are embedded in the deck which follows a catenary arc between supports.

Unlike the simple suspension spans which tends to sway and bounce, the ribbon is stressed in compression which adds to the stiffness of the structure. The supports of stressed ribbon bridge support upward thrusting arcs that allow the grade to be changed between spans where multiple spans are used.

Stressed ribbon bridges are typically constructed from concrete reinforced by steel tensioning cables. Degree of stiffness required for such bridges depends on vehicle traffic conditions. For heavy vehicle traffic, certain degree of stiffness is required to prevent excessive flexure of the structure. This stiffness can be obtained by stressing the concrete in compression.

Fig: Components of a Stressed Ribbon BridgeThe construction of stressed ribbon bridges requires less materials as compared to other bridges, requires less maintenance and can be erected with expansion joints. Thus, these bridges are aesthetic, economical as well as environment friendly.

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