There are various factors which affect deflections of reinforced concrete beams and slabs which needs to be considered and assessed adequately during design and construction. These factors can be divided into two group including parameter known before construction and factors unknown ...

## Vibration Analysis of Machine Foundations

Machine Foundation is subjected to dynamic loads. These loads develop the vibratory motions which will transmit into the soil below the foundation. The effect on soil caused by these vibrations is analyzed using principles of soil dynamics and theory of ...

## Qualitative Structural Analysis of Beams and Frames

Qualitative structural analysis might not be familiar to structural engineers. The usual way of analysis of structures is numerical (quantitative) method in which the structural designers should determine values for dimensions and loads and compute bending moments and reactions. However, there ...

## Types of Loads on Structures – Buildings and Other Structures

The types of loads acting on structures for buildings and other structures can be broadly classified as vertical loads, horizontal loads and longitudinal loads. The vertical loads consist of dead load, live load and impact load. The horizontal loads comprises ...

## PORTAL METHOD OF APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS

PORTAL METHOD OF APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS The portal method is an approximate analysis used for analysing building frames subjected to lateral loading such as the one shown in figure 1(a). This method is more appropriate for low rise (say height is less ...

## INFLUENCE LINE METHOD OF ANALYSIS

An influence line for any given point or section of structure is a curve whose ordinates represent to scale the variation of a function such as shear force, bending moment, deflection etc at a point or section, as the unit ...

## PUNCHING SHEAR

What is punching shear? The failure mechanism of structural elements like slabs and foundation etc. by shear, is called punching shear. Consider a portion of slab subjected to an increasing concentrated load. Eventually the slab will fail. One possible method of ...

## BEHAVIOUR OF TENSION MEMBERS UNDER LOADS

Behaviour of tension members under the action of loads for tension ties and is discussed below: Behaviour of Tension Tie: The tie is the simplest type of member in tension. When a tensile load is applied on one side of a tie ...

## Moments of Inertia of Areas

First moment Forces are distributed continuously over an area on which they act, it is often necessary to calculate the moment of theses forces about an axis...

## Statics of Bending: Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

Beams are long and slender structural elements, differing from truss elements in that they are called on to support transverse as well as axial loads. Their attachment points can also be more complicated than those of truss elements: ...