PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES

Plate girders became popular in the late 1800’s, when they were used in construction of railroad bridges. The plates were joined together using angles and rivets to obtain plate girders of desired size. By 1950’s welded plate girders replaced riveted ...

STRENGTHENING OF R.C.WALLS

The dimensions of the wall and its reinforcement are in creased by the following steps: 1. Roughing the total area of the concrete surface. 2. Installing steel connectors for the whole surface at 25-30cm spaces in both directions. The diameter of the ...

STABILITY OF STRUCTURE

Change in geometry of a structure or structural component under compression – resulting in loss of ability to resist loading is defined as instability. Instability can lead to catastrophic failure that must be accounted in design. Instability is a ...

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION & DESIGN

Pipelines are a very important part of modern civilization. And pipeline transport has become the most important way of moving fluids from one point to the other. Pipelines have been used for millennia for the movement of water and pipeline ...

INDETERMINATE ARCHES

An arch may be defined as a plane-curved bar or rib supported and loaded in a way that makes it act in direct compression. For example, the structure in Fig. 1a is a parabolic symmetrical arch that is loaded with ...

ANALYSIS OF MOMENT RESISTING FRAME & LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION

LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION OF FRAME BUILDING:In a two dimensional moment resisting frame each joint can have at the most three degrees of freedom (displacement in horizontal and vertical directions and rotation). Total number of degree of freedom is 3Nj where Nj ...

BASIC ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN

Structures on the earth are generally subjected to load of two types static and dynamic. Static loads are constant with time while dynamic loads are time varying. The majority of civil engineering structures are designed with assumptions that all applied ...

GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN

An earthquake is vibration of earth surface by waves emerging from the source of disturbance in the earth by virtue of release of energy in the earth’s crust. It is essentially a sudden and transient motion or series of motions ...

METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF FRAMES

Elastic analysis deals with the study of strength and behavior of the members and structure at working loads. Frames can be analyzed by various methods. However, the method of analysis adopted depends upon the types of frame, its configuration (portal ...

STRUCTURAL DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

Working stress method (WSM) Ultimate load method (ULM) Limit state method (LSM)1. Working stress method (WSM):- This was the traditional method of design not only for reinforced concrete, but also for structural steel and timber design. The method basically assumes that ...