SEISMIC EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES

What are the Seismic Effects on Structures? Inertia Forces in Structures Earthquake causes shaking of the ground. So a building resting on it will experience motion at its base. From Newton’s First Law of Motion, even though the base of the ...

EARTHQUAKE & RELATED TERMS

Magnitude: Measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake. It is usually expressed using Richter scale. Professor Charles Richter noticed that at a constant distance, seismograms records of earthquake ground vibration of larger earthquake have bigger wave amplitude than ...

PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION & DESIGN

Pipelines are a very important part of modern civilization. And pipeline transport has become the most important way of moving fluids from one point to the other. Pipelines have been used for millennia for the movement of water and pipeline ...

BASIC ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN

Structures on the earth are generally subjected to load of two types static and dynamic. Static loads are constant with time while dynamic loads are time varying. The majority of civil engineering structures are designed with assumptions that all applied ...

GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN

An earthquake is vibration of earth surface by waves emerging from the source of disturbance in the earth by virtue of release of energy in the earth’s crust. It is essentially a sudden and transient motion or series of motions ...

STRUCTURAL DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES

Working stress method (WSM) Ultimate load method (ULM) Limit state method (LSM)1. Working stress method (WSM):- This was the traditional method of design not only for reinforced concrete, but also for structural steel and timber design. The method basically assumes that ...

STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROCESS

The entire process of structural planning and design requires not only imagination and conceptual thinking but also sound knowledge of practical aspects, such as recent design codes and bye-laws, backed up by ample experience, institution and judgment. It is emphasized that ...

DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF BARS

The development length may be defined as the length of the bar required on either side of the section to develop the required stress in steel at that ...

RELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN

Reliability?“BEST bus services are very reliable”“BMC water supply is not very reliable”“In Mumbai, Western Railway’s service is more reliable than ...