Superelevation is the transverse slope provided to counteract the effect of centrifugal force and reduce the tendency of vehicle to overturn and to skid laterally outwards by raising the pavement outer edge with respect to inner edge. superelevation is represented by “ e ”.
Superelevation in Highway Engineering
Analysis of superelevation
Let us say Design speed = V m/s
Radius = R m
Various forces acting on the vehicle:
Where e = rate of superelevation in %
f = lateral friction factor = 0.15
V = velocity of vehicle in m/s
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2
R = radius of circular curve in meters.
Limits for maximum superelevation:
According to IRC the Maximum Superelevation in Areas
Which Are Bound by Snow fall – 7%
Which are not bounded by Snowfall – 10%
Limits for minimum superelevation
Minimum superelevation = camber or cross slope
Camber: Slope provide in the transverse direction to drain off rain water quickly is known as Camber or Cross slope. This will also prevents slipping and skidding of vehicles.
IRC Recommendations for Camber
Type of pavement
Light rainfall intensity
Heavy rainfall intensity
C.C pavements and thick bituminous pavements
1 in 60
1 in 50
Thin Bituminous Pavements
1 in 50
1 in 40
W.B.M and Gravel Pavements
1 in 40
1 in 33
1 in 33
Design of superelevation
There are four steps involved in the design of superelevation. And they are,
Calculate the superelevation necessary for 75% design speed and assume No lateral friction is developed
If e value is less than emax = 0.07, provide calculated e value. Otherwise proceed to next step
When ecal > emax
Provide e = emax = 0.07 in this step and go to next step.
From the above step we have the value of e. so, check for lateral friction factor is applied in this step for the known value of e.
If fcal < fmax (0.15)
Then e = 0.07 is safe.
But if fcal > 0.15
Then restrict the values to f = 0.15, e = 0.07
And go to last step.
In this step we will find out the value of restricted speed.
Let V = Va
If Va > V, then e = 0.07, f= 0.15
If Va < V , then also e = 0.07, f = 0.15 but, speed restriction board is provided which consists the value of Va As shown in figure below.