Ferrocement is a type of thin wall reinforced concrete commonly constructed of hydraulic cement mortar reinforced with closely spaced layers of continuous and relatively small size wire mesh. The mesh may be made of metallic or other suitable materials. Ferrocement has a very high tensile strength-to- weight ratio and superior cracking behavior in comparison to(…)
A structure which can adapt to the changing environmental conditions is called SMART. This smartness can be achieved by using smart materials like Shape-memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectric crystal, magneto-rheological fluids etc. Smart structures can take care of their own health and resist natural calamities. MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURAL HEALTH: Differential settlement Earth quakes and vibrations(…)
Base Isolation Method in Building Construction Conventional Construction Practice assumes Fixed Base Structures The Dynamic Characteristics of Fixed Base Structures are determined by the general characteristics of the structural system The Designer can only slightly adjust those Dynamic Characteristics As a matter of fact, most common Building Structures have unfavourable Dynamic Characteristics that result in(…)
The wire in figure 1 is pulled by the action of a mass attached to its lower end. In this condition the wire is in tension. Suppose the total load on the cross-section of the wire is P and the cross-sectional area of the wire is A, then the uniform tensile stress () in the(…)
DESIGN OF SLAB Slabs are generally designed on the assumption that they consists of a number of beams of breadth ‘one meter’. Effective Span The effective span of a simply supported slab shall be taken as the lesser of the following: Distance between the centers of bearings, Clear span plus effective depth Thickness of Slab(…)
When strengthening is going to be undertaken all failure modes must be evaluated. Strengthening a structure for flexure may lead to shear failure instead of giving the desired increased load bearing capacity. It should also be noted that not only the failure mode of the strengthened member is important. If a critical member in a structure is strengthened, another member can become the critical one. Because of changed stiffness in an undetermined structural system the whole structure must be investigated. The strengthening should also designed with consideration to minimize the maintenance and repair needs. When a strengthening is designed the consequences from loss of strengthening effectiveness by fire, vandalism, collision etc. must in addition be considered.
Design of a reinforced concrete section for shear is carried on in the following steps: (a) Determine nominal shear stress of concrete by using following formula: (b) Determine design shear strength of concrete, (Table 1 below). Table-1: Design Shear Strength of Concrete, (N/mm2) (c) Provide shear reinforcements as per requirement and convenience. Fig: Shear failure(…)
Wall footings are pad or spread and strip Footings. The basic purpose of this foundation is to spread the load over a larger area so that the soil is able to withstand the stress, and the safe bearing pressure is not exceeded. In such types of foundations, if the resultant of the load deviates from(…)