The fixing of door and window frames in the existing openings should be carried out correctly, including the requisite preparations for openings, drilling holes, fixing frames, and finishing works. Proper fixing of frames prevents fault and subsequent failure of walls or deflection of windows.
This article discusses how to fix door and window frames in the existing openings.
Step-Wise Guide to Fix Door and Window Frames in Existing Openings
1. Cleaning and Preparation of Existing Openings
- Any existing door or window frame as a whole or part attached to the opening is removed.
- Lugs, screws, and bolts, if any, shall be removed.
- Holes or cavities in the existing opening shall be filled with grout or concrete.
- The opening is cleaned of any dust or debris.
- In case of a damaged opening, the size and the corner shall be repaired.
2. Drilling of Holes
- In the case of door frames without sills, 40 mm deep holes shall be made in the floor for fixing the lower end of verticals of the frames.
- For doors with sills, the sill plates shall be partly fixed on the floor to project above the floor to a height as directed by the engineer.
- The requisite number of holes at the correct positions shall be cut out in the masonry for embedding holdfasts of doors, windows, or clerestory windows.
- The size of the holes shall be such that the frames with the holdfasts can be conveniently erected in position.
- Where necessary, masonry shall be chipped uniformly to facilitate easy insertion of the frame in the opening.
- Special care shall be taken when holes are made in load-bearing pillars or wall portions separated by openings to ensure that beams supported by them are properly propped up.
- In such portions, holes shall be cut on one side at a time.
- The sides of the holes shall be truly parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the wall.
- Due care shall be taken not to disturb the adjoining masonry and the masonry under the bearings of lintels and arches, etc., spanning the opening.
- The holes shall then be cleaned of all dust, mortar, and brickbats or stone pieces and thoroughly wetted.
3. Fixing of Door and Window Frames
- The sides of frames of the door, window, or clerestory window abutting against or to be embedded in masonry shall be painted with two coats of coal tar before being placed in position.
- The frames shall then be inserted in position with their holdfasts bolted tight.
- The frames shall then be adjusted to the proper line and plumb and secured in position by temporary bracing, which shall not be disturbed or removed until the hold faces are embedded in the masonry, and the concrete block has been set.
- The concrete for embedding holdfasts shall be cement concrete 1:3:6: mix (1 cement:3 coarse sand:6 graded stone aggregate, 20 mm nominal size).
- The minimum size of concrete block in which the holdfasts will be embedded shall be 30 x 10 x 15 cm for 35 cm long holdfasts.
- The concrete of the block shall fill the hole made in the masonry for the purpose.
- The chase cut in the floor shall be cut square, and construction joint shall be provided or filled in with cement concrete 1:2:4 (1 cement: 2 coarse sand: 4 graded stone aggregate, 20 mm nominal size) and rendered smooth at the top and finished to match the existing type of floor.
4. Finishing Work
- After the surface surrounding the holdfasts has sufficiently dried, it shall be cleaned of dust, debris, etc., and wetted.
- It shall then be plastered with cement mortar 1:4 flush and matching with the surrounding plasterwork.
- In case of exposed brickwork, stonework, the finishing shall be done to match the surrounding.
- Any other portion of the wall opening, if damaged, shall be repaired similarly.
- After the cement plaster patches have been thoroughly cured and dried, they shall either be whitewashed or color-washed as required, unless otherwise specified.
- All waste and debris obtained from cutting etc. shall be disposed of at the nearest dumping ground.
The minimum size of the opening in which the holdfasts will be embedded shall be 30 x 10 x 15 cm for 35 cm long holdfasts.
The concrete to be used for embedding holdfasts shall be cement concrete 1:3:6: mix.
40 mm deep holes shall be made for fixing the door and window frames.