Many decisions in design are based on engineering judgement, but not only on the understanding of theory or any computational tools. Even experience in extensive design in academic context can provide only limited perspective in engineering decision making. Most lessons in engineering decision making come from the cases of histories of failures of structures, which(…)
The wire in figure 1 is pulled by the action of a mass attached to its lower end. In this condition the wire is in tension. Suppose the total load on the cross-section of the wire is P and the cross-sectional area of the wire is A, then the uniform tensile stress () in the(…)
There are five levels of environment exposure of concrete for which durability requirements of concrete depends. These are: Mild exposure Moderate exposure Severe exposure Very severe exposure, and Extreme exposure. These are the environments to which the concrete will be exposed during its working life. The durability requirement, like clear cover to reinforcement steel is(…)
Detailing of Beams ? Beam carries transverse external loads that cause bending moment, shear forces and in some cases torsion ? Concrete is strong in compression and very weak in tension. ? Steel reinforcement is used to take up tensile stresses in reinforced concrete beams. ? Mild steel bars or Deformed or High yield strength(…)
DESIGN OF SLAB Slabs are generally designed on the assumption that they consists of a number of beams of breadth ‘one meter’. Effective Span The effective span of a simply supported slab shall be taken as the lesser of the following: Distance between the centers of bearings, Clear span plus effective depth Thickness of Slab(…)
Joints in liquid retaining concrete structures are important part of its design as joints are required as per size and position of structure.
Different types of buildings suffer different degrees of damage during earthquakes and the same has been studied here. 1. MUD AND ADOBE HOUSES: Unburnt sun dried bricks laid in mud mortar are called adobe construction. Mud houses are the traditional construction, for poor and most suitable in view of their initial cost, easy availability, low(…)
The analysis of a framed building with shear walls subjected to horizontal and vertical load is essentially a three-dimensional problem. With the proliferation of computer programs available a three-dimensional analysis presents no great difficulty provided the modeling techniques fully reflect the behavior of the structure. The only penalty is time. Sometimes, especially where a dynamic(…)