STEPS IN ANALYSING A BRIDGE The analytical process for structure of bridges can be broken down to six main steps: Idealise the structure Form a model Idealise the loading in a form suitable for the model Solve the resulting equation Interpret the idealized results Check these results so that they comply with initial assumptions and(…)
METHODS OF BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION: Before a bridge can be built an appropriate method of construction must be chosen. The decision is made by the design team. The principle factors considered by the design team when chosing a suitable method of construction are given below: The scale of the bridge The obstacles to be crossed The(…)
When strengthening is going to be undertaken all failure modes must be evaluated. Strengthening a structure for flexure may lead to shear failure instead of giving the desired increased load bearing capacity. It should also be noted that not only the failure mode of the strengthened member is important. If a critical member in a structure is strengthened, another member can become the critical one. Because of changed stiffness in an undetermined structural system the whole structure must be investigated. The strengthening should also designed with consideration to minimize the maintenance and repair needs. When a strengthening is designed the consequences from loss of strengthening effectiveness by fire, vandalism, collision etc. must in addition be considered.
MULTISTOREY REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS DESIGN A large number of reinforced concrete multistoreyed frame buildings were heavily damaged and many of them collapsed completely in Bhuj earthquake of 2001 in the towns of Kachchh District (viz., Bhuj, Bhachao, Anjar, Gandhidham and Rapar) and other district towns including Surat and Ahmedabad. In Ahmedabad alone situated at more(…)
Advantages of continuous multiple-span deck over simply supported multiple-span deck Movement joints are normally added to bridge structures to accommodate movements due to dimensional changes arising from temperature variation, shrinkage, creep and effect of prestress. However, the provision of excessive movement joints should be avoided in design because movement joints always encounter problems giving rise(…)
Japan adores to be ahead of the whole world, its people will never get tired of these constant creations and inventions. The Japanese are always making something new, something really interesting and completely addictive. sun, sand and surf were everyone’s prescription for holiday paradise, but, in the south of Japan, they leave nothing to Mother(…)
The design of steel chimney can be done as two types: Self-supporting steel chimneys Guyed steel chimneys. Self-supporting steel chimneys: When the lateral forces (wind or seismic forces) are transmitted to the foundation by the cantilever action of the chimney, then the chimney is known as self-supporting chimney. The self-supporting chimney together with the(…)
INSPECTION OF A BRIDGE STRUCTURE: Once a bridge is opened for use, management begins and carries on for the life of the bridge. Hence, the bridge must be regularly inspected and maintained for the benefit of its users. There are three levels of inspection: 1. General inspection: Usual inspection of representative parts of a structure.(…)