When strengthening is going to be undertaken all failure modes must be evaluated. Strengthening a structure for flexure may lead to shear failure instead of giving the desired increased load bearing capacity. It should also be noted that not only the failure mode of the strengthened member is important. If a critical member in a structure is strengthened, another member can become the critical one. Because of changed stiffness in an undetermined structural system the whole structure must be investigated. The strengthening should also designed with consideration to minimize the maintenance and repair needs. When a strengthening is designed the consequences from loss of strengthening effectiveness by fire, vandalism, collision etc. must in addition be considered.
Types of cracks Structural cracks. Non Structural Cracks. Structural Cracks Structural cracks are those which result from incorrect design, faulty construction or overloading and these may endanger the safety of a building and their inmates. Non Structural Cracks. Non Structural cracks occur mostly due to internally induced stresses in building materials. These cracks normally do(…)
Japan adores to be ahead of the whole world, its people will never get tired of these constant creations and inventions. The Japanese are always making something new, something really interesting and completely addictive. sun, sand and surf were everyone’s prescription for holiday paradise, but, in the south of Japan, they leave nothing to Mother(…)
The design of steel chimney can be done as two types: Self-supporting steel chimneys Guyed steel chimneys. Self-supporting steel chimneys: When the lateral forces (wind or seismic forces) are transmitted to the foundation by the cantilever action of the chimney, then the chimney is known as self-supporting chimney. The self-supporting chimney together with the(…)
Ultrasonic Testing (Pulse Velocity Test) An ultrasonic test measures the velocity of an ultrasonic pulse through a concrete member or sample. Listed below are the reasons for using ultrasonic testing: Assess the uniformity and relative quality of the concrete. Indicate the presence of cracks and voids. · Estimate the depth of a well formed crack(…)
Japan saw most of its infrastructure bombed back to the stone age in the final years of World War II, which makes the country’s post-war rejuvenation all the more astounding. Huge, complex public works projects saw a concrete & steel web of highways, bridges and interchanges blossom from the wreckage of war. Today, shaped by(…)
The London Aquatics Centre is an indoor facility with two 50 metre swimming pools and a 25 metre diving pool, which will be one of the main venues of the London 2012 summer Olympics.Location: Startford, London Construction cost: £303mArchitect Zaha Hadid ArchitectsStructural Engineer ARUP The installation of the stunning wave-shape roof on the aquatics centre(…)
Concrete has become universal building material and more appropriate structural forms such as shear wall and tube structures. The high dead load characteristics are no limited on the height of concrete building. Otherwise, the dead load from the concrete tends to be more significant in minimizing the sway deflection and floor vibration as well as(…)