Applications of Different Types of Cement for Concrete Construction

Selection of cement based on suitability for different concrete construction is important for durability considerations of structures. Thus, making wise choice of cement type for particular construction site, prevents structure from deteriorating and saves much repair and rehabilitation cost later.

Following are the suitability of various cements for different environmental conditions:

Applications of 33 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

It is used for normal grade of concrete upto M-20, plastering, flooring, grouting of cable ducts in PSC works etc. The fineness should be between 225 and 280.

Application of 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

  • It is the most widely used general purpose cement. For concrete grades upto M-30, precast elements.
  • For marine structures but C3A should be between 5 – 8%.

Application of 53 Grade OPC Cement

  • For concrete grade higher than M-30, prestressed concrete works, bridge, roads, multi-storied buildings etc.
  • For use in cold weather concreting.
  • For marine structures but C3A should be between 5 – 8%.

Applications of Portland Slag Cement (PSC)

It is OPC + granulated slag cement. It gives low heat of hydration. The slag should be more than 50%and upto 70%. It is used for;

  • Marine and off shore structures- very high chloride and sulphate resistant.
  • Sewage disposal treatments works
  • Water treatment plants
  • Constructions which are expected to be attacked by dissolved chlorides and sulphate ions.
  • Should be mainly used for all future structures.

Applications of Portland Pozzolana Cement

IS:1489(part-I ) -1991 (using flyash). It gives low heat of hydration and reduces the leaching of calcium hydroxide. This cement should be used only after proper evaluation. This should be tested as per IS:1489 (Pt I) – 1991. It is used for:

  • hydraulic structures-dams, retaining walls
  • Marine structures
  • Mass concrete works- like bridge footings
  • under aggressive conditions
  • Masonry mortar and plastering.

Applications of Sulphate Resisting Cement

(C3A < 3%) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement is a type of Portland Cement in which the amount of tricalcium aluminate (C3A) is restricted to lower than 5% and 2C 3A +C4AF lower than 25%. The SRC can be used for structural concrete wherever OPC or PPC or Slag Cement are usable under normal conditions.

The use of SRC is particularly beneficial in such conditions where the concrete is exposed to the risk of deterioration due to sulphate attack, for example, in contact with soils and ground waters containing excessive amounts of sulphates as well as for concrete in sea water or exposed directly to sea coast.

The use of Sulphate Resisting Cement is recommended for following applications:

  • Foundations, piles
  • Basement and underground structures
  • Sewage and water treatment plants
  • Chemical factories
  • Suitable for underground works where Sulphate is present in the Soil and water.

Sulphate Resisting Cement is Not Suitable for:

  • Sulphate resisting cement is not suitable where there is danger of chloride attack. This will cause corrosion of rebar.
  • If both Chlorides and Sulphates are present, Ordinary Portland Cement with C3A between 5 & 8 should be used.

Applications of Low heat portland cement

Low Heat Portland Cement is particularly suited for making concrete for dams and many other types of water retaining structures, bridge abutments, massive retaining walls, piers and slabs etc. In mass concreting, there is often considerable rise in temperature because of the heat produced as the cement sets and hardens.

The shrinkage which occurs on subsequent cooling sets up tensile stresses in the concrete, may result in cracking. The use of low heat cement is advantageous since it evolves less heat than OPC. This cement is not available in the market on regular basis and has to be obtained on specific orders.

selection-of-cement-for-concreting

Applications of Rapid hardening cement

The Rapid Hardening Cement is used for repair and rehabilitation works and where speed of construction and early completion is required due to limitations of time, space or other reasons. The cement is to be used in cold weather concreting i.e. temperature < 5oC.

Rapid hardening cement is basically OPC but its fineness is 3250 cm2/g against 2250 cm2/g in case of OPC. The compressive strength after 1 day is 16 N/mm2 and that of 3 days 27 N/mm2.

These days higher grade OPC are available in the country to meet these requirements and therefore, this cement is not being manufactured and marketed on regular basis. The characteristics of this cement can be effectively met by only good quality 53 grade OPC.

Applications of Hydrophobic portland cement

Hydrophobic Portland Cement is manufactured on special requirement for high rainfall areas to improve the shelf life of the cement. The cement particles are given a chemical coating during manufacturing which provides water repelling property and the cement is not affected due to high humidity and can be stored for a longer period . This has to be obtained on special order from the cement manufactures.

Read More:

Types of Cement – Uses and Composition of Various Types of Cements

Tests on Cement at Construction Site To Check Quality of Cement

Soil Cement – Types, Composition, Mix, Applications and Advantages

Manufacture of Cement- Materials and Manufacturing Process of Portland Cement

Gopal Mishra

Gopal Mishra

Gopal Mishra is a Civil Engineer from NIT Calicut and has more than 9 years of experience in Civil Engineering and Construction. He is the founder of The Constructor.