🕑 Reading time: 1 minuteThere are various factors that lead to damages and deterioration of brick facades such as temperature, humidity, size and shapes etc. These factors affecting brick facades are discussed.
Fig.1: Deteriorated Brick Facade of a Building
Fig.2: Brick Facade Adhered to Load Bearing Wall
- What are the Causes of Brick Facade Deterioration in Buildings?
- Brick Facade Deterioration due to Shape and Fitting of Brick Facade
- Brick Facade Deterioration due to Temperature Gradient
- Deterioration of Brick Facade due to Humidity Variations
- Brick Facade Damages Because of Construction Practices
- Deterioration of Brick Facade due to Environmental Conditions
What are the Causes of Brick Facade Deterioration in Buildings?Causes for building brick facade deterioration include:
- Factors related to the shape and fitting of brick façade
- Brick facade damages due to temperature gradient
- Deterioration of brick facade due to humidity variations
- Brick facade damages because of construction practices
- Deterioration of brick facade because of environmental conditions
Brick Facade Deterioration due to Shape and Fitting of Brick FacadeThere are two main factors that may contribute to deterioration and damage of brick façade, namely, grip material quantity placed at the back of the brick and brick smooth cutting. So, the connection between brick facade and bearing wall is based on the resistant and deformity of the material used to create the link between bearing wall and brick facade. It is necessary to ensure these properties of gripping material through tests to have good adherence. The gripping material such as mortar should behave elastically and does not suffer damages under stress. This property could be achieved to a certain extent by introducing lime to the mortar.
Brick Facade Deterioration due to Temperature GradientTemperature variation would lead to differential movements or deformation of mortar and brick facade. So, when temperature rises, the expansion of mortar and brick facade would be different because their masses are different. To eliminate or decrease the degree of damage due to temperature variations, it is recommended to make the resistance of mortar joints smaller than that of brick. This will guarantee the breakage of mortar prior to the brick because the repair of the mortar joint would be easier compared to the brick.
Fig.3: Damage of Brick Faced due to Temperature Variation
Deterioration of Brick Facade due to Humidity VariationsThe ingression of humidity into the brick facade and mortar joints lead to their expansion and contraction. By and large, this movement does not lead to brick facade or mortar joint deteriorations, but if it is persistent it would impair damages. There are several factors that help the penetration of humidity into the facade bricks and mortar joints. For example, construction practice, direction of the structure, improper selection of bricks (poor brick quality) and quality of mortar and additives. It is claimed that, the cracks developed in mortar is the major cause of humidity penetration. This problem cannot be tackled unless the factor that lead to humidity penetration are eliminated.
Fig.4: Humidity Penetration Caused Expansion of Brick and Mortar, Mortar Joint Failed