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- What is meant by Building Adaptation?
- Building Adaptation Significance and Maintenance
- Range of Different Building Adaptation Options
- Different Scales of Building Adaptations
- Adaptability in Building Adaptation
- Objective of Building Adaptation
- Opportunities in Building Adaptation
What is meant by Building Adaptation?Before moving on to building adaptation, it is essential to understand what is adaptation? Adaptation means the ability to fit. Building adaptation in construction can be defined as an intervention to adjust any work done on a building above the intention of maintenance that brings changes in the capacity, the function and the performance of the building.
Fig.1. Building Adaptation in ConstructionOther words that are made or used similar to building adaptation are the building refurbishment, the rehabilitation of the building, restoration or renovation.
Building Adaptation Significance and MaintenanceA survey conducted on the construction industries in UK have revealed the importance of contribution of building adaptation and their maintenance. The main reason for the society to move towards building adaptation are the deficiencies in the performance of the building, sustainability of the buildings. The table below shows the value of newly constructed buildings and refurbished buildings in UK in the year 2004.
Table.1: Values of Different Building Sectors in UK, As per Goodier and Gibb, 2004
Range of Different Building Adaptation OptionsThe scope of adaptation works that can be carried out in the building is very large. This depends mainly on the extent and the purpose of the changes proposed to the building. The figure-1 below shows the different range of adaptation options that can be applied to the building. One end of the spectrum starts with the preservation and the other end will end with the complete reconstruction of the building. The intermediate interventions possible are the refurbishment, rehabilitation, remodeling, renovation, retrofitting and restoration.
Fig.2. Spectrum of Range of Adaptation OptionsThe nature and the extent of intervention differentiate each of the adaptation option from each other.
Different Scales of Building AdaptationsThere are three different scales at which the extent of adaptation can be carried out. They are:
- Small scale adaptation
- Medium scale adaptation
- Large scale adaptation
Small Scale AdaptationThe degree of change in small scale adaptation is of low key. These involve the activities of improvement of the surfaces in minor areas, having fitting upgradation and extensions in the minor scale. Some of the examples under this category are the re-roofing, having new coverings for the floorings, re-painting or painting, replacement of door and windows or the fittings of the kitchen or toilet. Conversion of the loft or porch extension. Some minor structural works can also be included in this category. This include bringing new openings in the structure.
Medium Scale AdaptationThis type of adaptation brings a substantial change in the building structure. This type involves a conversion scheme. The structure includes upgradation of the surfaces and the elements in a major scale. Major scale retrofitting is conducted for different services of the building. The capacity of the building is enlarged. Many alterations in the structural side is made. For old buildings, the changes conducted is large. For example, conversion of office rooms to flats or vice versa, incorporation of new air conditioning system in the building, roof recovering with good thermal properties, over cladding, the walls, re-cladding the walls, flat roof undergoing over roofing, extension in lateral or vertical direction in major area, insertion or the removal of the walls and the floors.
Large Scale AdaptationThis scale of adaptation brings drastic change in the building. It has extensive remodeling works planned, which includes façade retention method (reconstructing new buildings behind the existing external facades or the walls), spatial and structural alterations in an extensive manner so that the usage is changed or the capacity is decreased or increased. For examples, the works done for complete restoration of a ruined multi -story building, façade retention ideas, internal and the external modification of the existing building. When it comes to adaptation for commercial purpose the different scales of adaptation are greatly influenced by the market and the lease considerations.
Adaptability in Building AdaptationThe adaptability can be defined as the ability of the building to absorb minor and major changes. This is a major attribute of adaptation. There are five criteria involved in adaptability. This includes:
Objective of Building AdaptationThe adaptation once conducted must let the user use the product continuously and efficiently for a long period of at least greater than 5 years. This can be achieved only if the adaptation work takes in the following objectives. The main objectives of building adaptation are:
- Compliance with the standard code
- Enhancement of the environment
- Spatial modifications
- Upgrading the structure and fabric
Compliance with the CodeIt is very essential to bring the building that have undergone any scale of adaptation to conform with the contemporary building standards at any cost. The standards that must be followed will include the:
- Facilities that is provided for the disabled access
- Facilities for the fire safety
- Proper Sound Insulation and Noise prevention
- Stability criteria of the structure
- Thermal efficiency of the building
Environmental EnhancementThe features that must be incorporated when carrying out building adaptation to enhance the environmental features includes the following:
- The comfort conditions and the energy efficiency can be increased by installing new or upgraded services.
- Bring buildings that contributes to sustainability objective.
- For indoor climate, high performance standards have to be achieved.
- To improve the appearance of the building façade painting or repainting can be performed.
- The external environmental improvements can be achieved by having soft landscaping which is a part of the urban regeneration scheme.
Spatial ModificationsThis adaptation work is mainly conducted on the plan arrangement of the building. The works includes:
- The size of the units can be adjusted. For example, the ceiling levels can be lowered.
- The building can be divided into smaller units. This can be vertical or horizontal division. Forming compartments within a building having small rooms or office spaces.
- Making self-contained units.
- Spaces can be combined to form large spaces.
- Provision for additional space arrangements.
- The existing space can be expanded so that it can serve certain purpose liking dining.
- Common areas and circulations can be provided.
- The accommodation can be increased and improved.
- Additional space for having new activities can be done. For example, the need for work area or computer room.
- Alterations can be done for elderly people or the disabled ones.
- The internal planning of the building can be reconfigured based on the convenience.
- The function of the spaces can be changed. For example, changing the lounge to kitchen.
Upgrading the structure and the FabricSome of the options that can be carried out in this objective are:
- To improve the weather resistance of the roof and the wall, it can be either over roofed or it can be subjected to overcladding respectively. This also enhances the aesthetics, the thermal performance of the building and the acoustic property of the structure. The whole building efficiency would increase.
- Improvement and general repairs can be carried out for damp proofing and preservation of timber.
- Remedial works can be carried out to conduct rectification of flood and storm damage issues.
- The load – bearing capacity can be improved by inserting a new column or beam as a part of strengthening.
- The structural elements that are defective or of sub - standards can be repaired. One such example is underpinning operations that is carried out for foundations.