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Building security and control system have become necessary with increasing size and complexity of buildings. The building security and control system is designed to monitor and control mechanical and electrical installations, fire protection and escape, burglary, assault and emergency communication.
In tall buildings and major complexes, the most important security requirement is fire-safety system. In addition to the structural precautions for fire protection, special system is required to monitor and control are:
1. Fire detection and suppression,
2. Movement and protection of people
3. Smoke control including pressurization and barriers
4. Safe places of refuge and
5. Emergency arrangements and communication.
In major buildings, these arrangements are integrated with those required to monitor and control the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other aspects of security within a single electronic system. The computer monitors all significant local conditions and appropriate action is taken.
Such measures for security and control could bring in the use of:
- Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning plant and equipment to suit internal and external conditions or programmed requirements.
- Data collection for maintenance and resource management, particularly energy use and analysis, programmed responses to suit anticipated emergencies, e.g. defining smoke-free zones and escape routes in the event of fire, and
- Security interlocks, surveillance and access control.
Energy management system (EMS), building automation system (BAS) and Building Management System (BMS) are used to describe these systems. The EMS controls the environmental functions, the BAS controls the technical automation and BMS includes such matters as status reports on environmental conditions, lifts and location of people for security purpose. All these are influenced, and influenced by the overall building designs.
The problems of building security is not only limited to major building complexes. With also depends on crime rates, density, size and tenant income, the nature of surrounding areas, building design characteristics etc..