The Constructor

Formwork (Shuttering) for Different Structural Members -Beams, Slabs, Columns, Footings

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Concrete formworks (shutterings) are required for fresh concrete constructions such as walls, slabs, beams, columns, footings etc. Formworks requirements for different structural members are different and they are named based on type of structural member. Formwork (shuttering) is a temporary mould to provide support to fresh concrete when placed in structural member until the concrete has set. This helps the structural member to gain sufficient strength to carry its self-load and load from other members. There are many types of structural formwork or shuttering based on its material, their use and the type of structural members. They can be named based on that. However, core functioning of the formwork remains the same.

Types of Formwork (Shuttering) Based on Structural Member:

Formworks are used in construction of reinforced concrete foundations, columns, slabs, walls etc., and these are named as follows:

Footing Forms – Formworks for Foundation

The first step for any concrete construction starts with the construction of foundation. Foundation can be for columns or walls. So, based on type of structural member, the shape and size of footing are designed. Thus formwork size and shape depends on the type and dimension of the footing.

Components of Footing Forms:

Fig: Components of Footing Formwork – For Shallow Footing – Continuous Footing Formwork

Column Forms – Formwork for Concrete Column Construction

Reinforced concrete column forms are subjected to lateral pressure because of their small cross section, large heights and relatively high rates of concrete placement. Thus It is necessary to provide tight joints and strong tie support to the formwork. As the sizes of concrete column increases, the stiffness of the formwork must be increased by either increasing thickness of sheathing or vertical stiffeners must be added to prevent sheathing deflection.

Wall Forms – Formwork for RCC Wall Construction

Formwork for wall construction are subjected to relatively lower lateral pressure than column forms due to their large cross-sectional area.

The components of wall forms are:

Fig: Components of a Wall Formwork

Floor Forms – Formwork for construction of RCC Slabs

Formwork for reinforced concrete slabs depends on the type of slabs to be constructed. The floor slabs can be structural slabs supported on a steel or concrete structural frame, or slab-on-grade. The design of formwork varies with the type of slab. Structural Slab Formwork assembly is carried out as follows:

Fig: Structural Slab Formwork Components

Slab-on-Grade Forms are forms for concrete slabs placed on grade. These slab formworks are usually quite simple as concrete is placed on compacted earth or gravel leveled base. Thus no support is required for concrete at the bottom.

Fig: Components of a Slab-on-Grade Slab Formwork

Slab-on-Grade Formwork assembly is carried out as follows: Read More: Types of Formwork (Shuttering) for Concrete Construction Plastic Formworks for Concrete – Applications and Advantages in Construction Concrete Formwork Design Considerations – Basis for Concrete Formwork Design Wooden Concrete Formwork Design Criteria with Calculation Formulas Concrete Formwork Loads and Pressure Calculations Concrete Formwork Removal Time, Specifications and Calculations Measurement of Formworks Formwork Safe Practices Checklist
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