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Formwork (shuttering) in concrete construction is used as a mold for a structure in which fresh concrete is poured only to harden subsequently. Types of concrete formwork construction depends on formwork material and type of structural element.
Formworks can also be named based on the type of structural member construction, such as slab formwork for use in a slab, beam formwork, column formwork for use in beams and columns, respectively, etc.
The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or even more. The design of these temporary structures are made to economic expenditure. The operation of removing the formwork is known as stripping. Stripped formwork can be reused. Reusable forms are known as panel forms and non-usable are called stationary forms.
Timber is the most common material used for formwork. The disadvantage with timber formwork is that it will warp, swell, and shrink. The application of water-impermeable cost to the surface of wood mitigates these defects.
Requirements of Good Formwork
- It should be strong enough to withstand all types of dead and live loads.
- It should be rigidly constructed and efficiently propped and braced both horizontally and vertically, to retain its shape.
- The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of cement grout.
- Construction of formwork should permit removal of various parts in desired sequences without damage to the concrete.
- The material of the formwork should be cheap, readily available, and should be suitable for reuse.
- The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line, and levels should have a plane surface.
- It should be as light as possible.
- The material of the formwork should not warp or get distorted when exposed to the elements.
- It should rest on a firm base.
Economy in Formwork
The following points are to be kept in view to effect economy in the cost of formwork:
- The plan of the building should imply a minimum number of variations in the size of rooms, floor area, etc. to permit reuse of the formwork repeatedly.
- Design should be perfect to use slender sections only in the most economical way.
- Minimum sawing and cutting of wooden pieces should be made to enable reuse of the material many times. The quantity of surface finish depends on the quality of the formwork.
Formwork can be made out of timber, plywood, steel, precast concrete, or fiberglass used separately or in combination. Steel forms are used in a situation where large numbers of re-use of the same forms are necessary. For small works, timber formwork proves useful. Fiberglass made of precast concrete and aluminium are used in cast-in-situ construction such as slabs or members involving curved surfaces.
Types of Formwork (Shuttering)
1. Timber Formwork
Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement:
It should be:
- Light in weight
- Easily workable with nails without splitting
- Free from loose knots
Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and even surface on all faces which come in contact with concrete.
Table 1: Normal sizes of members for timber formwork
|Sheeting for slabs, beam, column side, and beam bottom||25 mm to 40 mm thick|
|Joints, ledges||50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm|
|Posts||75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm|
2. Plywood Formwork
Resin-bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up panels of the required sizes. The cost of plywood formwork compares favorably with that of timber shuttering, and it may even prove cheaper in some instances given the following considerations:
- It is possible to have a smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing is there.
- By the use of large-size panels, it is possible to affect saving in the labor cost of fixing and dismantling.
- The number of reuses are more as compared with timber shuttering. For estimation purposes, the number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25.
3. Steel Formwork
This consists of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts.
The panels can be fabricated in large numbers in any desired modular shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in a situation where large number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shutter is considered most suitable for circular or curved structures.
Comparison between Steel and Timber Formwork
- Steel forms are stronger, durable, and have a longer life than timber formwork and their reuses are more in number.
- Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed.
- The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such surfaces need no further treatment.
- Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete.
- Steel formwork does not shrink or warp.
Construction of Concrete Formwork
This normally involves the following operations:
- Propping and centering
- Provision of camber
- Cleaning and surface treatment
Order and Method of Formwork Removal
The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:
- Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls, beams, and column sides should be removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.
- Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.
- Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders, or other heavily loaded shuttering should be removed in the end.
Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early removal of formwork.
The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be removed until all the concrete reaches a strength of at least twice the stresses to which the concrete may be subjected at the time of removal of formwork.
All formworks should be eased gradually and carefully in order to prevent the load from being suddenly transferred to concrete.
Figure 1 to 6 shows formwork for different types of members in civil engineering construction.
Table 2: Period of Removal of Formwork
|S. No.||Description of structural member||Time Period|
|1||Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams||1 to 2 days|
|2||Slabs (props left under)||3 days|
|3||Beam soffits (props left under)||7 days|
|4||Removal of props to slabs|
|(a) For slabs spanning upto 4.5 m||7 days|
|(b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m||14 days|
|5||Removal of props to beams and arches|
|(a) Spanning upto 6 m||14 days|
|(b) spanning over 6 m||21 days|
FAQs on types of formworks and their properties
1. Timber formwork
2. Plywood formwork
3. Steel formwork
Formwork is used to describe the process of building temporary molds in to which fresh concrete is poured to construct designated structural concrete elements and achieve its shape.
1. Adequately strong to withstand all types of loads.
2. Rigid enough to retain its shape.
3. Joints in the formwork tight against leakage of cement grout.
4. Formwork construction should permit the removal of various parts in desired sequences without damage to the concrete.
5. The formwork material should be cheap, readily available, and reusable.
6. The formwork should be set accurately to the desired line, and levels should have a plane surface.
7. It should be as light as possible.
8. It should rest on a firm base.
The construction of formwork takes time and involves expenditure up to 20 to 25% of the cost of the structure or even more.
2. Light in weight
3. Easily workable with nails without splitting
4. Free from loose knots