Resilient flooring is defined as the floors made up of materials like PVC, rubber, linoleum etc. Different types of resilient flooring used in building construction is discussed.
Resilient flooring system is denser and non-absorbent in nature. They assure a pliant surface which makes comfortable walking. These flooring also assure guarantee in having lesser maintenance.
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Different Types of Resilient Flooring used in Buildings
There are different types of resilient flooring that can be carried out base on the requirement, material availability and other factors of the needed.
Some of the types of resilient flooring are:
Each material that constitutes the vinyl flooring possess certain inbuilt properties that are the final property of the flooring. Each material used and their respective imparted properties are mentioned below:
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
The PVC is the main component material that will play the role of the binder. It adds the advantage of providing wearing resistance for the final flooring system. This binder will consist of plasticizers as well as stabilizers.
The flexibility of the floor is increased with the help of plasticizer. This is how the PVC flooring will become resilient in nature.
The lasting of the color and the pigmentation resistance from the heat and light are maintained by the help of stabilizers.
The bulkiness and the thickness of the flooring are increased with the help of fillers. The fillers can be of natural or mineral fillers. Mostly mineral filler is used, that will help in improving the resistance against the fire. The slip resistance can be gained with the help of natural fillers.
Fig. PVC Flooring Rolls for Resilient Flooring
In India, normal PVC floor coverings are available in the thickness of 1.5,2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4mm.
The PVC flooring is laid over the concrete floors. This work is done only after the completion of plastering, paint and all related works.
After laying the PVC floors, it is recommended to have 24 hours of undisturbed condition to ensure proper bonding between the adhesive and the floor. The floor is later clean with wet cloth. The cloth is dipped in a soap solution (2 spoons soft soap to 5 liters of warm water).
Vinyl Sheet Flooring
This forms a continuous finished resilient floor covering. This can be either solid vinyl or backed one. The sheet vinyl has fewer joint (due to availability as sheets), they are used in spill, dirt or bacterial growth prevention areas.
Hospital operating rooms i.e. for all those rooms where the bacterial growth is a concern make use of these flooring. This hence promotes resistance to higher water penetration, as water and moisture are favorable conditions for bacterial growth.
The sheet type vinyl flooring can be installed in two different ways. It can be either heat welded or chemically welded.
The melting of the vinyl rod between the sheets will define the heat welded method of installation. This method makes use of special equipment and trained technicians.
The chemical welding involves the method of melting the ends of the vinyl sheet ends, with the help of a solvent. This solvent is added in one or two parts which are mixed at the site. The chemical method is found to be more economical compared to the heat welding method.
Vinyl Tile Flooring
The vinyl flooring can be done with the help of vinyl tiles. There are two types of vinyl tile:
- Solid Vinyl Tile
- Vinyl Composition Tile (less expensive VCT)
The solid vinyl tile is also called as the homogeneous tile. It consists of more PVC than VCT. This makes the solid vinyl tile more resilient towards the abrasion forces. These also possess a higher indentation resistance and rolling or load resistance. These have continuous pattern through the floor thickness, that makes a consistent appearance.
As per ASTM F 1066- Standard Specification for Vinyl Composition Floor Tile, there are 3 types of VCT
- Type 1- Solid Color Tiles
- Type 2- Through Pattern Tiles
- Type 3 – Surface Pattern Tiles
This type of flooring consists of natural rubbers that are also accompanied by many filling compounds. The rubber as a raw material itself is highly expensive, which make this method more expensive.
These flooring systems are available in tiles as well as sheets. The rubber flooring is carried out on an even floor. This installation can be carried out only by specialized people.
Rubber flooring and skirting are of different types. The backing of fabric or foams or sheet with fabric inset are the types they are also available. These have higher chances to get depleted when they are exposed to higher heat when it also has moisture exposure.
Fig. Rubber Flooring
There are two types of rubber flooring:
- Homogeneous rubber tile having uniformity in color throughout the tile thickness
- Laminated rubber tile that has pattern and colors only in the wear layer.
The linseed oil that is obtained from the flax plant is the primary material of linoleum. The oil is oxidized which later is combined with following materials to impart the respective properties:
- Natural resin
- Powdered rock for flexibility
- limestone for hardness and strength
- Pigments and wood flour for color fastness
- Fiber backing is undergone for dimensional stability
Fig. Linoleum Flooring Sheets
The linoleum floors are laid over a surface that is dry and damp proof. Before flooring, it is very essential to brush away all the dust and the dirt from the surface. Before it is cut out (linoleum sheets), they have to be kept unfold for 2 to 3 days. The special adhesive is required for proper bonding.
The cork oak trees that are grown in the Mediterranean regions give the cork material for the flooring. The outer layer of the cork oak trees is taken for this purpose. After every nine years, the bark loses and it is taken away from the tree.
Fig. Cork Flooring with variety of color options in the market
The bark material is subjected to granulation and pressed with synthetic resins as binders. This is then baked. The composition of the cork is one of the important parameters that judges the quality of cork flooring. It is dependent on:
- The size and quality of granules
- The binder type and its quantity
- The density of the mix