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Timber is used for so many purposes in construction industry. Constructional timber is obtained from the different types of trees which are abundantly available in different regions.

Some of the most used timber producing trees and their uses in engineering world is described below.

Different Timber Producing Trees for Use in Construction

Teak

Color: Deep yellow to Dark brown

Properties: one of the valuable timber trees of world. It is durable and fire resistant. It does not allow the corrosion of iron fastenings. Seasoning of teak wood is very easy and it is easily workable also.

Uses: For house constructions, railway carriages, flooring, manufacturing ships, wood piles etc.

teak

Rosewood or Blackwood

Color: Dark color

Properties: this type of tree produces tough and close-grained timber. It is very strong and gives beautiful look after high polishing. Large sized products can be made. It weighs about 7900N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: High quality furniture, ornamental carvings etc.

Rosewood or Blackwood

Sandal

Color: White/Red

Properties: it is hard and strong. After seasoning its weight is about 9300 N/m3.

Uses: Agricultural instruments, wheels, mallets etc.

Sandal

Mahogany

Color: Reddish Brown

Properties: it is durable even in under water conditions. Easily workable. It weighs about 7200 N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: furniture, fancy goods, ornamental paneling etc.

Mahogany

Oak

Color: Yellowish Brown

Properties: It is strong and durable. It contains silvery grains in it. Its weight after seasoning is about 8650 N/m3 at 12 % moisture content.

Uses: Sports things like cricket bats, etc.

Oak

Pine

Color: Pale yellow/White

Properties: Pale yellow pine is heavy and coarse grained while white pine is light and straight grained.

Uses: door and window frame, matches industry, paving material etc.

Pine

Bamboo

Color: Pale yellow

Properties: bamboo is endogenous tree. It is strong and flexible. Durability also high.

Uses: Scaffolding, rafters, temporary bridges etc.

Bamboo

Banyan

Color: Brown

Properties: It is mostly durable in under water conditions only. It weighs about 5800 N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: Poles, well kerbs, door panels etc.

Banyan

Iron wood

Color: Reddish Brown

Properties: It is very hard and not easily workable. Durability is high. It weighs about 10400 N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: railway wagons, house construction, bridges etc.

Iron wood

Axle Wood

Color: Pale yellow/White

Properties: it is very strong and tough. Smooth finish can be obtained. Weighs about 9300 N/m3 @ 12% moisture content after seasoning.

Red cedar

Color: Red

Properties: Red cedar tree produce soft and ever grained timber. Which is well suitable for under water conditions and moist conditions. Good smooth surface can be obtained by polishing. After seasoning it weighs around 4800N/m3.

Uses: Bridge constructions, railway sleepers, piles, well curbs etc.

Deodar

Color: Yellowish Brown

Properties: Deodar tree produces soft timber which is used for several purposes. It weighs about 5600 N/m3 at 12% moisture content after seasoning.

Uses: cheap furniture, railway carriages, packing boxes etc.

Irul

Color: light Brown

Properties: it is very hard and heavy timber. Durability is high. Seasoning requires more time and after seasoning it weight is 8350 N/m3 at 12% moisture content.

Uses: railway sleepers, paving blocks, agricultural tools etc.

Aini

Color: Yellowish Brown

Properties: Aini is very strong and close grained. It is elastic. It weighs about 5950 N/m3 at 12% moisture content.

Uses: ordinary house construction. Paving material etc.

Bakul

Color: Reddish brown

Properties: Bakul tree also produces close grained and strong timber. Its weight after seasoning is about 8800 N/m3 at 12 % moisture content.

Uses: building construction, bridges, piles etc.

Babul

Color: Whitish red

Properties: Babul timber is strong, hard and durable. After seasoning its weight is about 8350 N/m3 at 12 % moisture content.

Uses: cart wheels, agricultural tools, etc.

Guava

Color: Greyish brown

Properties: It is hard but not very strong. It is easily flexible and fine-grained wood. Its weight after seasoning is about 7500 N/m3.

Uses: handles of instruments, toys, etc.

Mango

Color: Deep grey

PROPERTIES: It is moderately strong and shape of timber is good. After seasoning it weighs 6550 N/m3 @ 12% moisture content.

Uses: Door and Window panels, toys, packing boxes etc.

Mango

Sissoo

Color: Dark brown

Properties: it is tough and durable. Gives pleasant looks but difficult to work. Durable nature is high. Seasoning can be done easily and after seasoning its weight is about 7700 N/m3 at 12% moisture content.

Uses: high class furniture, ply wood, piles, decorative works etc.

Spruce

Color: Yellow

Properties: It is strong against salt water. it can be twisted and wrapped easily. Its weight is about 4800 N/m3 at 12 % moisture content after seasoning

Uses: Under water structures, aero plane industries etc.

Mulberry

Color: Brown

Properties: Mulberry wood is so famous because of its elastic nature. It is strong, tough and elastic also. It can be easily turned and carved.

Uses: It is used for making sports goods like cricket bats, hockey sticks etc.

Satin wood

Color: Yellow

Properties: Close grained, hard and durable timber can be obtained from satin wood. After seasoning it weighs about 9600 N/m3.

Uses: Furniture, ornamental carvings, agricultural tools etc.

Tamarind

Color: Dark brown

Properties: It has full knots but durable. It weighs about 12800N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: For making moldings, carts, well kerbs, agricultural instruments etc.

Toon

Color: Reddish brown/dull red

Properties: Very light in weight and easily workable. After seasoning it weighs about 5300 N/m3.

Uses: Door panels, Musical instruments, Furniture, Railway carriages etc.

Toon

Kathal

Color: Yellow to Deep brown

Properties: Kathal wood is heavy and hard wood. It has great water resistance so, it is suitable for under water structures. It cannot resists direct sunlight. If exposed cracks may developed.

Uses: Wooden piles, Door and Window panels, Wood bridges etc. +

Hopea

Color: Light to Deep brown

Properties: Hopea wood also strong and very tough. Workability of Hopea is hard but it has great durability. It weighs around 10000 N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: for making boats, house constructions, rail sleepers etc.

Laurel

Color: Dark brown

Properties: Laurel tree produces strong, hard and tough timber. Its weight after seasoning @ 12% moisture is about 8800 N/m3.

Uses: Building construction, several structural works, etc.

Bijasal

Color: Light brown

Properties: It is strong and durable. It is coarse rained timber and very difficult to work. After seasoning it weighs about 8000 N/m3 @ 12% moisture content.

Uses: ordinary building constructions, cart wheels etc.

Arjun

Color: Dark brown

Properties: It is strong and heavy. Good polish can be obtained.it weighs about 8700 N/m3 after seasoning at 12% moisture content.

Uses: Beams, rafters, cart wheels, door frames etc.

Gumar

Color: Pale yellow

Properties: Gumar timber is famous for under water structures. It is strong and easily workable. After seasoning it weighs about 5800 N/m3.

Uses: Well kerbs, gunstocks, wood pulp, carriages etc.

Sundri

Color: Dark red

Properties: sundri wood is very hard and tough. So, seasoning and working with it is difficult task. However it is durable and elastic in nature.

Uses: piles, poles, for making boats, tool handles etc.

Sal

Color: Brown

Properties: Sal wood is hard and close grained. It is fibrous and good polishing is difficult to achieve. But it is good against moist conditions. It weighs 8000 N/m3 after seasoning at 12% moisture content.

Uses: railway sleepers, Wagons, Bridges etc.

Casuarina

Color: Reddish brown

Properties: Casuarina timber trees are very straight growing trees. So, they can cut to long lengths. They are strong and fibrous. It weighs 7650 N/m3 after seasoning at 12% moisture content.

Uses: Scaffoldings, temporary structures etc.

Palms

Color: Dark brown

Properties: It is fibrous in nature and also strong and durable. Its weight after seasoning is about 10400 N/m3.

Uses: Roof coverings, rafters, joists etc.

Siris

Color: Dark brown

Properties: Hard and durable. Good action against Salt water. Difficult to work while manufacturing. Weighs around 10400 N/m3 after seasoning.

Uses: well kerbs, beams, posts, etc.

Simul

Color: White

Properties: It is light in weight and is about 4500 N/m3 after seasoning. It has loose grained nature and produces inferior quality of wood.

Uses: for making toys, for match box industries, well kerbs etc.

Indian elm

Color: Red

Properties: Indian elm timber is of medium class timber which is moderately hard and strong. After seasoning it weighs about 9600 N/m3.

Uses: Window frames, carts, agricultural instruments etc.

Jarul

Color: Light Reddish Grey

Properties: Hard and durable timber is obtained from jarul tree. It resists the effect of salt water actions. Easily workable timber and weighs about 6400 N/m3 at 12 % moisture content after seasoning.

Uses: Building construction, manufacturing boats, scaffolding etc.

Jack

Color: Yellow

Properties: Jack tree timber is compacted and ever grained timber which is moderately strong. 5950N/m3 @ 12% moisture content is the weight after seasoning.

Uses: Plain furniture, musical instruments, cabinet making etc.

Benteak

Color: Pale yellow

Properties: It consists good strength and smooth surface can be obtained. It weighs 6750 N/m3 @ 12% moisture content after seasoning.

Uses: Building constructions, making boats, furniture etc.

Read More:

What is Seasoning of Timber? Various Methods of Seasoning of Timber

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