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A variety of materials combined with mortar of varying strength can be used for masonry construction. Some of the common materials used are brick, stones, concrete, veneer, gabion, etc.
Some of the important masonry construction based on the material used are briefly explained.
1. Brick Masonry Construction
Brick masonry construction makes use of first-class burnt clay bricks. For less important construction, third class bricks are used in masonry. Second class bricks are best for masonry construction that is plastered as it lacks finish compared with first class bricks.
The overall tensile strength offered by the brick masonry is less and is irrespective of the class of brick chosen. Overall performance depends on the size, position, and number of openings provided to the masonry structure.
Also Read: Brick Masonry Construction
2. Stone Masonry Construction
Stone is the most durable, strong and weather-resistant construction material compared with any others. These are less affected by daily wear and tear. Masonry structures made out of stone hence last for a longer period. It has a life period of 300 to 1000 plus years. Due to it's numerous advantageous, it is widely used in masonry construction.
Stone masonry has two main classifications:
- Rubble Masonry
- Ashlar Masonry
Rubble Masonry is again classified into:
- Uncoursed or Coursed Random Rubble Masonry
- Uncoursed or Coursed Square Masonry
- Polygonal Rubble Masonry
- Dry Rubble Masonry
Ashlar masonry is again classified into:
- Ashlar Fine Masonry
- Ashlar Block in Course
- Ashlar Chamfered Masonry
- Ashlar Rough Tooled Masonry
- Rock or Quarry Faced Masonry
3. Concrete Masonry Construction
In concrete masonry construction, the concrete blocks are pressed on the top of other similar to brick masonry construction. This creates a staggered formation. The dimension of concrete blocks is larger compared to bricks, so less time is required to lay concrete blocks.
Concrete block construction hence is popular as it is affordable and gain high fire resistance. The concrete masonry blocks come in various sizes, shapes, and special forms thus making it a versatile construction material. It is highly used in the construction of factories, schools and residential buildings.
4. Veneer Masonry Construction
This masonry construction is a type mainly used for remodeling and to provide interior finish. It gives the appearance of a stone or brick wall with a better economy and insulation. Veneer masonry units can be placed on the existing concrete wall giving a better appearance.
5. Gabion Masonry Construction
Gabions are baskets made out of zin protected steel or so-called galvanized steel that is filled with medium-sized fractured stones. These gabions act as a single unit. It behaves like a revetment or retaining walls.
These masonry units are well-drained and flexible in nature. Hence have high resistance to horizontal pressure like water floes, soil flow, frost damage and floods. Commonly used gabions are rectangular in nature. The durability of gabions depend on the corrosion resistance property of the steel used for gabion baskets.
6. Composite Masonry Construction
A composite masonry construction makes use of two or more types of building materials for the construction. These masonry constructions are employed to increase the appearance of the building and to use available material resources with the utmost economy.