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SOME OF THE SMART COMPOSITES FIBRES ARE:
- Carbon fibres
- Aramid Fibres (meta and para)
- Glass fibres(E-glass and S-glass)
Carbon fiber is a composite material most often found in race cars and expensive supercars although like all advanced technology it is finding its way into more and more vehicles. Despite it's expense and high-tech uses carbon fibre is relatively easy to work with. The expense of carbon fibre is offset by it's amazing strength and extreme lightweight properties. It is also extremely stiff and body stiffness plays an important part in contributing to good handling, especially at high speeds.
Some production supercars use a carbon fibre monocoque, a construction technique that uses the external skin to provide support rather than the conventional internal frame. Other times the carbon fibre is used in the bodypanels or in areas where extreme stiffness and lightweight is beneficial.Carbon fibre is sometimes used in conjunction with fiberglass because of their similar manufacturing processes, an example of this would be the Corvette ZO6 where the front end is carbon fibre and the rear is fibreglass. Carbon fiber is however, far stronger and lighter than fiberglass. Carbon fibre can be found in a wide range of performance vehicles including sports cars, superbikes, pedal bikes (where they are used to make frames), powerboats and it is often used in the tuning and customising industry where attractive woven panels are left unpainted to 'show off' the material. Carbon fibres are the most expensive reinforcing fibres. The price for weaved mats is about 500 DKK/kg. Tensile strength: 2000-5000 MPa
Carbon fibre has many particular advantages in weight and performance but is held back by expensive fabrication, repair and recycling processes. The beauty of carbon fibre is that it can be fabricated in such a way that directional performance (in terms of response to force applied) can be manipulated to give the best possible results in virtually every circumstance. Whilst a material such as steel will have desirable performance when subjected to forces in certain ways or from certain directions, weaknesses will remain. The ability to arrange fibres to suit the particular forces affecting a component mean more areas of weakness can be eliminated.
There are different categories of carbon fibers based on modulus, tensile strength, and final heat treatment temperature. In the carbonization process, temperature exposures range from 10000 C to 20000 C, each different level of exposure creating a different property for the fiber. For example, high-modulus type is processed at 20000 C, 15000 C for high strength type, and 10000 C for low modulus and low strength type. The main carbon fibers are made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based and pitch based, and are well known for their composite reinforcement and heat resistant end uses.
Carbon Fiber Properties
1640 - 3850
0.2 – 1.3
Continuous operation temp. (OF)
570 - 1000
570 - 1000
- Aircraft and aerospace
- Sports & recreational equipment
- General engineering
- Reinforcement composites and rubber
Glass fibres are made of silicon oxide with addition of small amounts of other oxides.Glass fibres are characteristic for their high strength, good temperature and corrosion resistance, and low price. There are two main types of glass fibres: E-glass and S-glass.The first type is the most used, and takes its name from its good electrical properties. The second type is very strong (S-glass), stiff, and temperature resistant.Used as reinforcing materials in many sectors, e.g. automotive and naval industries, sport equipment etc. They are produced by a spinning process, in which they are pulled out through a nozzle from molten glass (thousands of meter/min).Glass fibres are very low cost. Their price for weaved mats is about 15 DKK/kg.
Glass fibers are useful because of their high ratio of surface area to weight. However, the increased surface area makes them much more susceptible to chemical attack. By trapping air within them, blocks of glass fiber make good thermal insulation, with a thermal conductivity of the order of 0.05 W/(m·K).
The strength of glass is usually tested and reported for "virgin" or pristine fibers—those which have just been manufactured. The freshest, thinnest fibers are the strongest because the thinner fibers are more ductile. The more the surface is scratched, the less the resulting tenacity. Because glass has anamorphous structure, its properties are the same along the fiber and across the fiber. Humidity is an important factor in the tensile strength. Moisture is easily adsorbed, and can worsen microscopic cracks and surface defects, and lessen tenacity.
In contrast to carbon fiber, glass can undergo more elongation before it breaks. There is a correlation between bending diameter of the filament and the filament diameter. The viscosity of the molten glass is very important for manufacturing success. During drawing (pulling of the glass to reduce fiber circumference), the viscosity should be relatively low. If it is too high, the fiber will break during drawing. However, if it is too low, the glass will form droplets rather than drawing out into fiber.
- Reinforcement - plastic/rubber/cement
- Thermal insulation
- Printed circuit boards - electrical
- Aircraft and aerospace
- Cushion material
- Thermal insulation and spacers
- Acoustic insulation
Aramid fibres are known for their large hardness and resistance to penetration. Thanks to their toughness aramid fibres are used where high impenetrability is required, e.g. bulletproof vests, bike tyres, airplanes wings, and sport equipment.
These fibres are not as spread as glass or carbon fibres, mostly because of their cost, high water absorption, and their difficult post-processing. They are produced from PPTA . Immersed in a strong acid at -50 C, PPTA forms liquid crystals. The liquid is pulled through a nozzle at 200 C: the acid evaporates and the crystals get oriented. Finally, the fibres are stretch out at 500 C. Very high costly fibres. The price for weaved mats is about 400 DKK/kg. Tensile strength: ca. 3,600 MPa. The properties of aramid fibres depend on the manufacturing conditions.
Aramid fibre is a man-made organic polymer (an aromatic polyamide) produced by spinning a solid fibre from a liquid chemical blend.The bright yellow filaments produced can have a range of properties, but all have high strength and low density that result in very high specific strength. All grades have excellent resistance to impact, and lower modulus grades are used extensively in ballistic applications.
Proven experience in yacht-rigging provides endless possibilities for replacing traditional steel-wire for Aramid Rigging. Our endless-winding technology for end fittings replaces the traditional less durable cone fittings in steel wire solutions.
Cables can be up to 50% smaller in diameter, and therefore much lighter!
- flame-resistant clothing.
- heat protective clothing and helmets.
- ropes and cables.
- fiber reinforced concrete