There are several site factors that lead to increase construction of heavy civil projects. These factors are not the same from one project to another one.
Site Factors Affecting Construction Cost of Heavy Civil Projects
Site factors that increase the cost of heavy civil constructions include:
- Bad weather condition
- Difficulty in accessing the construction site
- Remote construction site
- Short contract period
- Off-site disposal requirements
- Traffic problems
- Quarry or borrow pit permit requirements
- Excavation adjacent to high level of groundwater
- Limitation on how the construction site can be developed
- Limits on working hours
- Restriction on the level of noise in residential neighborhood
1. Bad Weather Condition
One of the major site factors that may increase cost of construction is the bad weather for example continues precipitation and short construction season.
Fig.1: Bad weather condition during construction generates difficulty and damage part of construction project or and equipment and hence increase construction cost
2. Difficulty in Accessing the Construction Site
Difficult accessibility is another factor that increase construction cost. Construction of temporary roads which are used to transport materials, equipment, and personnel to the construction site is an example of raising cost due to difficult access to the project site.
Fig.2: Temporary construction access road
3. Remote Construction Site
If the construction is remote, then it is likely that labor shortage will be encountered. So, labors are required to commute from other places which clearly increase the construction cost. Added to that, transportation cost of equipment and materials will also increase construction cost.
Fig.3: Remote project site increases construction cost due bringing labors from other regions and delivering of materials and equipment
4. Short Contract Period
If the contract period is short, then construction cost may increase due to higher labor and equipment cost. This is because labors required working for longer time and equipment used for longer period to maintain working in night shifts.
5. Off-Site Disposal Requirements
This will lead to increase transportation and disposal costs in landfills.
6. Traffic Problems
Traffic problems and extensive traffic control in an urban setting is another site factor that lead to increase the cost of project construction.
7. Quarry or Borrow Pit Permit Requirements
The achievement of borrow pit requirements need considerable time and it is costly. Borrowing material for construction would influence the environment, so it would not be an easy task to comply with several environmental laws.
8. Excavation Adjacent to High Level of Groundwater
Excavations close to high level ground water for instance excavation adjacent to river, stream, or lake. This will increase the difficulty of excavation operation and hence construction cost would increase.
9. Limitation on How the Construction Site can be Developed
Restrictions on how the construction site can be developed will not only influence the selection of the equipment used for construction but also lead to reduce production rate. As a result, the construction cost will be increased.
10. Limits on Working Hours
Restrictions on working hours will lead to increase number of working days. Limitations on working hours may apply in residential area. So, the cost of construction due to limitations on working hours will increase provided that the contractor cannot be take advantage of daylight for the construction.
11. Restriction on Level of Noise in Residential Neighborhood
Limitation on the level of noise generated by used construction equipment: noise level restriction will influence the selection of equipment types.
Subsequently, certain devices may be selected that their operation would be more expensive for example diesel pumps may be prevented to be used for dewatering excavation in residential area and more expensive pumps need to be used.