Mechanization is the process of shifting from working largely or exclusively by hand to do that work using machines. The construction projects are becoming more demanding and complicated in construction and delay of projects would arise if conventional construction method is used.
Delays in construction are costly and have prompted developers to embrace mechanization. Construction machineries are used in order to achieve larger output, cost-effective, execution of work that is not feasible by manual efforts, reduce the amount of heavy manual work which would cause fatigue, maintaining large output, and finalize projects on time.
Mechanization is based on rented construction equipment is cost effective. construction equipment when rented can be exactly to match the requirement. For rented equipment, time to make the equipment ready for operation is important.
- Motivations for Mechanization of Construction Industry
- Applications of Construction Mechanization
- Sources of Construction Mechanization
- Factors Affecting Selection of Construction Equipment
- Common Types of Construction Equipment
- Advantages of Construction Mechanization
- Disadvantages of Construction Mechanization
Motivations for Mechanization of Construction Industry
- The work can be done speedily which avoid time and cost over-runs.
- Large quantity of materials can be handled, so the size of the project can be increased
- The complex projects involving high grade material.
- High quality standards can be maintained.
- Time schedule can be kept.
- Optimum use of material, man power and finance.
- Shortage of skilled and efficient man power.
- To control on the duration and cost implications by using mechanized equipment over the Conventional method, which can be used in the planning of construction project.
- Lower insurance costs for builders.
- Easier and safer work for construction workers.
- Increased sustainability over a building’s lifetime.
- Little to no building-site construction waste.
Applications of Construction Mechanization
- Highway projects
- Power plant and other applications
Sources of Construction Mechanization
Fig. 1 illustrate the source of equipment from which construction equipment can be selected and obtained.
Factors Affecting Selection of Construction Equipment
- Availability of equipment.
- Suitability of job condition with special reference to climatic and operating condition.
- Uniformity type; easier operation and maintenance, easy exchange of spare parts and operating personnel.
- Size of equipment.
- Use of standard equipment; made by several companies so that easy purchase and delivery.
- Country of origin; If importing foreign exchange facility should be easily available.
- Unit cost of production – cost of running.
- Availability of spare parts and selection of manufacturer.
- Availability of local labour for operations.
- Function to be performed.
- Capacity of the equipment.
- Method of operation and its limitations.
Common Types of Construction Equipment
- Earth moving equipment
- Hauling equipment
- Hoisting equipment
- Conveying equipment
- Aggregate and concrete production equipment
- Pile driving equipment
- Tunneling and rock drilling equipment
- Pumping and de- watering equipment
- Tower cranes
- Laser Screeding Paving machine
- Plastering machine
- Bar cutting machine
- Bar straightening
- Core drill machine
- Laser screed Machine
- Arial platform work lifting machine
Advantages of Construction Mechanization
- Improve construction quality
- Increase safety of construction conditions
- Enhance speed of construction
Disadvantages of Construction Mechanization
1. Loss of Skill
The craftsman with the superior skill had disappeared. Such skill is no longer necessary. The only type of skill that is needed now is to run the machines.
Machinery has increased our dependence on others. We depend for our water and light on the satisfactory working of water-works and the power-house.
A small flaw would result in the supply of these necessaries being cut off at any time. This may mean not only inconvenience but serious dislocation of normal life.
3. Insanitary Surroundings
Big factories pollute their surroundings and make them filthy and insanitary. This has led to moral degradation and physical deterioration.
Machinery leads to too much specialization. This over- specialization increases the risk of unemployment and cramps the worker physically.
Use of machinery is responsible for class-conflict—the capitalist on one side and the laborer on the other.
It creates unemployment because one machine can take the place of several men.