There are different types of cranes used in construction projects. Crane is a machine capable of lifting, lowering and moving of heavy materials with the use of pulleys and cables.
Cranes are valuable assets for the construction industry because they made things easy for any type of construction. These are helpful for construction of high-rise buildings as well as in areas inaccessible.
Types of Cranes Used in Construction
- Vehicle Mounted Crane
- Tower Crane
- Rough Terrain Crane
- Crawler Crane
- All Terrain Crane
- Railroad Crane
- Telescopic Handler Crane
- Harbor Cranes
- Floating Crane
- Aerial Crane
- Telescopic Crane
- Level Luffing Cranes
1. Vehicle Mounted Crane
Cranes are required only during the construction as temporary structures. So, these are mounted to vehicles for easy movement. Mostly cranes are truck mounted except some heavy cranes. The wheels of vehicle mounted cranes are made with rubber.
These wheeled vehicles can move faster than trucked but are not accessible to uneven areas. Outriggers are provided to the base of vehicle to provide stability to the crane while working.
2. Tower Crane
Tower cranes are widely used for construction of tall buildings as they can work up to 265 feet as well as lower to 230 feet. These have lifting capacity approximately equal to 20 tons and are fixed to the ground during construction period.
These cranes are fixed using strong concrete base and anchored by large bolts which can be removed easily after construction.
3. Rough Terrain Crane
Rough terrain crane is special type of vehicle mounted crane. This crane is used for off-road construction work or rough terrain places where a normal vehicle mounted crane is not suitable.
Specially designed rubber tires are used for this crane and outriggers are provided at the base of the vehicle to provide stability while working.
4. Crawler Crane
This is a movable crane but the movement of vehicle is done by tracks due to which they do not require outriggers for stability. Their lifting capacity is very high (40 tons to 3500 tons).
Because of tracked system it can move to any site even in soft soils. It is capable of traveling with load and is used for heavy load transport in the construction site.
5. All Terrain Crane
It is also mobile crane which can move at same speed in the paved road as well as in rough terrains. It has more number of wheels than normal vehicle and they balance the vehicle without overturning in rough terrains. So we can use this crane instead of both truck mounted crane and rough terrain crane for dual purpose.
6. Railroad Crane
Railroad cranes are used for construction of railway line, repairing and maintaining of railroad. These have flanged wheels at its bottom which can be moved in rail track only.
7. Telescopic Handler Crane
Telescopic cranes are used to handle pallet of bricks, to install steel trusses at the top etc. and has forklift type part at the end of boom. They also have outriggers at its base. The crane part is rotatable to 360o.
8. Harbor Cranes
Harbor cranes are provided in port areas for loading and unloading of ships.
9. Floating Crane
Floating cranes are required for bridge construction, port construction. They are also used to load and unload the ships. They have capacity up to 9000 tons. So these are also useful to lift sunk ships from water.
10. Aerial Crane
These are also called as sky cranes. It looks like helicopter and are used when the target is difficult to reach by land. Cables are used to lift the material.
11. Telescopic Crane
Telescopic crane has a large boom in which number of tubes are fitted one inside the other. These tubes extend outwards by hydraulic mechanism. It is used to build signal towers, rescue operations, lifting boats from water etc..
12. Level Luffing Cranes
Level luffing crane has a hinged jib which move up and down enabling the crane arm to move inwards and outwards. It is used in shipyards to place containers or to unload ships.