Rate analysis of excavation in earthwork is the measure of quantity of excavation to be carried out, the cost of equipment, machineries and labors required for the same.

The cost of excavation depends on the depth of excavation, type of soil, method of excavation to be carried out and the distance where the excavated soil has to be disposed. The cost of all these are added for unit volume of excavation to get the rate of excavation.

The cost of excavation based on depth is generally divided into categories as:

- For depth upto 1.5m
- For depth between 1.5m to 3m.
- For depth between 3.m to 4.5m.
- For depth more than 4.5m

The depth of excavation required varies from project to project and from place to place. Many factors influence the depth of excavation. We will not go into the details about the same.

Summarizing above points, it can be seen that the rate analysis for excavation work can be divided by following ways:

The first method is the selection of type of soil to be excavated and lead distance where the soil has to be disposed off. Then the other variable that is considered is the depth of excavation and is presented in the rate analysis description as follows:

1. Excavation in earthwork for soft soil for a lead distance of 1km for following depths:

a) Up to 1.5m

b) 1.5m to 3m

c) 3m to 4.5m

2. Excavation in earthwork for hard soil/ hard rock for a lead distance of 1km for following depths:

a) Up to 1.5m

b) 1.5m to 3m

c) 3m to 4.5m

In the above examples of excavation, more number of descriptions are possible with different lead distance and type of soil. During tendering of civil engineering works, all the possible combinations are presented for quotations depending on the project requirements and site conditions.

**Rate Analysis of Excavation:**

**Following points to be noted before starting rate analysis of soil:**

- Type of soil
- Lead distance and transport for carrying excavated soil
- Depth of excavation
- Method of excavation – manual excavation or mechanical excavation
- Capacity of labor for manual excavation
- Capacity of equipment for mechanical excavation and their cost per unit quantity.
- Water charges if used
- Profit of contractor

We will see an example of excavation of soft soil for a depth up to 1.5m and lead distance of 50m per 10m^{3} of concrete.

Items | Units | Qty. | Rate | Amount |

Hydraulic Excavator | Day | 0.04125 | 5000 | 206.25 |

Tractor/Dumper | Day | 0.04125 | 1500 | 61.88 |

Unskilled Labor | Day | 1.20 | 311.2 | 373.44 |

Total | 641.57 | |||

Water charges @1% total | 6.42 | |||

Contactor Profit @15% | 96.23 | |||

SUM | 744.22 | |||

Gross Amt./CUM up to 1.5m depth | COST | 74.42 |

In the above example, the coefficient of quantity of hydraulic excavator, tractor / dumper and unskilled labors are based on their capacity per day (8 hours of work). Lets say for 10m3, the hydraulic excavator is taking 0.04125 day. Then its capacity considered is ((1×10)/0.04125) = 242.4242 m^{3} / day.

That means, a hydraulic excavator can excavate 242.4242 m^{3} of soil in one day. Its cost per day including driver and fuel is Rs. 5000. Then the cost of 10m^{3} of excavation can be calculated as:

No. of days required for 10m^{3} excavation = 10/242.4242 = 0.04125 days.

The cost of hydraulic excavator for 10m^{3} excavation = 0.04125×5000 = Rs.206.25

Likewise, based on the capacity of other equipment, labors etc., their cost is calculated. Contractors profit is also added to the total cost of labors and machineries. Then grand total gives the rate of excavation per 10m^{3} of soil excavation.

Different mechanical equipment have different capacity per day for excavation work. Their coefficient per m^{3} or per 10m^{3} should be considered for calculation.

**Read More:**

**Rate Analysis of Civil Works -Elements and Requirements**

**Rate Analysis of Plastering with Cement Mortar -Quantity Calculation**

**Rate Analysis for Cement Mortar**

**Quantity of Cement & Sand Calculation in Mortar**

**Analysis of Rates for Civil Engineering Works**

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