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Transverse Strength Test on Roofing Tiles Based on ASTM C 1167 and IS

Transverse Strength Test on Roofing Tile Based on ASTM C1167 and IS

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The transverse strength test of roofing tile is commonly carried out based on the specifications of applicable standards such as ASTM 1167-11 and IS 13801. It involves wet or dry method test and conducted in the lab to estimate breaking transverse load for the roofing tile.

The roofing tile transverse strength is one of the requirements that the tile need to meet otherwise it jeopardize objective of the project.  Roof tile is rectangular flat or bent unit that is produced from terracotta, slate, concrete, plastic, or waterproof glaze. It is designed to resist moisture penetration and usually hung from framework of a roof.


Estimate the transverse breaking strength of roofing tiles


The tile testing machine

Fig. 1: Testing Machine

Specimen Preparation

Fig. 2: Schematic Representation of Tile Set Up for Transverse Strength Test

Testing Machine Specifications

Test Procedure

  1. Set up the testing machine on which the roofing is place to be tested.
  2. Apply uniform and continuous load on the tile without shock at maximum rate of 4550N/min (2000N/min based on IS13801) until fracture.
  3. Record the load in kilograms at fracture of each of the five tiles (IS13801: six tiles)
  4. Report the average of the five tests and the minimum individual result.

Calculation and Results

ASTM C1167-11 provides table 1 for the classification of the tested tile based on the transverse strength test.

Table 1 Transverse Breaking Strength Requirements

Type (All Grades) Wet Transverse Strength, min, N Wet Transverse Strength, min, N Dry Transverse Strength, min, N Dry Transverse Strength, min, N
- Average of five tiles Individual tile Average of five tiles individual tile
Type I-High profile 1334 1157 1779 1556
Type II-Low profile 1001 890 1334 1112
Type III-others 1001 890 1334 1112

If the span of the testing specimen is smaller than 30.5 cm, then the values in table 1 are multiplied by (12/span used (in.)).

If the span of testing specimen is greater than 35.6 cm, the values provided in table 1 should be multiplied by (width in (in.)/14)

Based on the IS 13801, the following equation can be used to calculate wet transverse strength.

f = (3pl)/2bt^2             Equation 1


p: breaking load

l: span between supports

b: tile width

t: fracture thickness of the tiles measured from the fracture line            

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