There are various types of bridges classified based on span, materials, types of bridge structures, functions, utility and position etc.
A bridge is structure which allows passage over an obstruction. The obstructions may be river, valley, rail route or road way etc.
- Types of Bridges
- Types of Bridges based on Type of Super Structure
- Types of Bridges based on Materials
- Types of Bridges based on Span
- Types of Bridges based on Function
- Types of Bridges based on Inter Span Relation
- Types of Bridges based on Utility
- Types of Bridges based on Position of Floor
- Types of Bridges based on High Flood Level (HFL)
Types of BridgesBridges are classified into so many types based on different criteria’s. They are explained below.
Types of Bridges based on Type of Super Structure
- Arch bridge
- Girder bridge
- Truss bridge
- Suspension bridge
Arch BridgeArch bridge is curve shaped bridge, in which horizontal thrust is developed and is restrained by the abutments at each end of the bridge. There are many types of arch bridges are there. In some cases, the arch may be under the deck slab also.
Girder BridgeIn case of Girder Bridge, the deck slab is supported by means of girders. The girder may be of rolled steel girder or plate girder or box girder. Load coming from the deck are taken by girder and transferred them to the piers and abutments.
Truss BridgeTruss is member consisting connected elements to form triangular units. In case of truss bridge the super structure is provided with trusses. Generally, trusses are made of steel. There are several types of trusses are available.
Suspension BridgeIn case of Suspension bridge, deck slab is suspended with the help of cables and suspenders. These will give good appearance. For long span bridges, this type of suspension is suitable.
Types of Bridges based on Materials
- Timber bridge
- Masonry bridge
- Steel bridge
- R.C.C bridge
- Pre stressed concrete bridge
Timber BridgeBridges constructed using timber are called timber bridges. These are generally constructed for short spans or as temporary bridges. They are not useful for heavy loads.
Masonry BridgeMasonry Bridge constructed by using bricks or stones. These are generally constructed for short spans and in low depth canals.
Steel BridgeSteel bridges are constructed using steel bars or trusses or steel cables. These are more durable and bear heavy loads.
R.C.C BridgeR.C.C bridges are constructed using reinforced cement concrete. These are more stable and durable. They can bear heavy loads and are widely using nowadays.
Prestressed Concrete BridgeIf concrete material is placed under compression before applying the loads, then it is called as prestressed concrete. To construct pre stressed concrete bridge, pre-stressed concrete blocks are arranged as deck slab with the help of girders. These blocks are suitable for shorter span to longer span bridges.
Types of Bridges based on Span
- Culvert bridge
- Minor bridge
- Major bridge
- Long span bridge
Culvert BridgeWhen the bridge span length is below 6meters then it is called as Culvert Bridge.
Minor BridgeIf the bridge span length is in between 8 to 30 meters, then it is called minor bridge.
Major BridgeFor major bridge, the span is generally about 30 to 120 meters.
Long Span BridgeWhen the span of bridge is more than 120 meters then it is termed as long span bridge.
Types of Bridges based on Level of Crossing
- Over bridge
- Under bridge
Over BridgeTo pass over another route (railway or highway), a bridge is constructed to allow traffic. This is called over bridge or fly over bridge.
Under BridgeIf over bridge is not possible, an underground type bridge is constructed to pass another route. This is called under bridge.
Types of Bridges based on Function
- Foot bridge
- Highway bridge
- Rail way bridge
- Aqueduct bridge
- Road cum railway bridge
Foot BridgeFoot Bridge is generally constructed for humans to cross the roads or rail route or any canal by foot. Vehicles are not allowed in this bridge.
Highway BridgeHigh way or road Way Bridge is used for road transportation. These are constructed over rivers or another routes to allow road way traffic. Girder type bridges are used as highway bridges over rivers or canals.
Railway BridgeRail bridges are constructed for rail transportation. Truss type bridges are preferred for railways but how ever r.c.c bridges are also used.
Aqueduct BridgeAqueduct bridges are nothing but water carrying bridges which are constructed to0 transport water from source to system.
Road cum Railway BridgeThis type of bridge is useful for both road way and railway transport. It may be of one floor or two floors. If one floor is there then, rail and road way are arranged side by side. Otherwise roadway on top deck and railway in bottom deck is preferred.
Types of Bridges based on Inter Span Relation
- Simple bridge
- Continuous bridge
- Cantilever bridge
Simple BridgeSimple bridge is like simply supported beam type which consist two supports at its ends. For shorter spans, simple bridges are suitable.
Continuous BridgeIf the bridge span is very long, then we have to build more supports in between end supports. This type of bridge is termed as continuous bridge.
Cantilever BridgeCantilever type of bridge have only supported at one end and another end is free to space. Generally, two cantilever portions are joined to make way to the vehicles or humans.
Types of Bridges based on Utility
- Temporary bridge
- Permanent bridge
Temporary BridgeDuring construction of dams or bridges or during floods, temporary bridges are constructed at low cost for temporary usage. These bridges are maintained at low cost. After construction of original structure temporary bridges are dismantled. Generally timber is used to construct temporary bridges.
Permanent BridgeThese bridges are constructed for long term use and maintained at high level. Steel or R.C.C bridges are come under this category.
Types of Bridges based on Position of Floor
- Deck bridge
- Through bridge
- Semi-through bridge
Deck BridgeIn case of Deck Bridge, super structure or floor of bridge is positioned in between the high flood level and formation level.
Through BridgeIn case of through bridge, Super structure of bridge is completely above the formation level.
Semi-Through BridgeIf the super structure of bridge is partly above and partly below the formation level, then it is called as semi-through bridge.
Types of Bridges based on High Flood Level (HFL)
- Low level bridge
- High level bridge