Register Now

Login

Lost Password

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email.

Login

Register Now

Shape tests on coarse aggregates such as flakiness index and elongation Index, its importance in concrete construction, methods of determination is discussed.

Shape Tests on Coarse Aggregates:

Following tests are conducted on coarse aggregates under shape tests:

  • The elongation index of the given aggregates
  • The flakiness index of the given aggregates

Apparatus for Shape Tests

The apparatus for the shape tests consists of the following:

  1. A standard thickness gauge
  2. A standard length gauge
  3. IS sieves of sizes 63, 50 40, 31.5, 25, 20, 16, 12.5,10 and 6.3mm
  4. A balance of capacity 5kg, readable and accurate up to 1 gm.

Theory of Flakiness Index and Elongation Index Tests

The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. For base course and construction of bituminous and cement concrete types, the presence of flaky and elongated particles are considered undesirable as these cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down under heavy loads.

Thus, evaluation of shape of the particles, particularly with reference to flakiness and elongation is necessary.

The Flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three- fifths (0.6times) of their mean dimension. This test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3mm.

The Elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than nine-fifths (1.8times) their mean dimension. This test is not applicable for sizes smaller than 6.3mm.

Procedure of Shape Tests on Coarse Aggregates

  1. Sieve the sample through the IS sieves (as specified in the table).
  2. Take a minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction to be tested and weigh them.
  3. To separate the flaky materials, gauge each fraction for thickness on a thickness gauge. The width of the slot used should be of the dimensions specified in column (4) of the table for the appropriate size of the material.
  4. Weigh the flaky material passing the gauge to an accuracy of at least 0.1 per cent of the test sample.
  5. To separate the elongated materials, gauge each fraction for length on a length gauge. The width of the slot used should be of the dimensions specified in column (6) of the table for the appropriate size of the material.
  6. Weigh the elongated material retained on the gauge to an accuracy of at least 0.1 per cent of the test sample.
Size of aggregates Weight of fraction consisting of at least 200 pieces,gThickness gauge size, mmWeight of aggregates in each fraction passing thickness gauge,mmLength gauge size, mmWeight of aggregates in each fraction retained on length gauge,mm
Passing through IS Sieve, mmRetained on IS Sieve,

mm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
6350W1 23.90X1
5040W2 27.00X2 81.00Y1
4031.5W3 19.50X3 58.00Y2
31.525W4 16.95X4
2520W5 13.50X5 40.5Y3
2016W6 10.80X6 32.4Y4
1612.5W7 8.55X7 25.5Y5
12.510W8 6.75X8 20.2Y6
106.3W9 4.89X9 14.7Y7
Total W = X = Y =

Record of Shape Test

Flakiness Index = (X1+ X2+…..) / (W1 + W2 + ….) X 100

Elongation Index = (Y1 + Y2 + …) / (W1 + W2 + ….) X 100

Results:

  1. Flakiness Index =
  2. Elongation Index =

Recommended Values of Flakiness Index and Elongation Index

The shape tests give only a rough idea of the relative shapes of aggregates. Flaky and elongated particles should be avoided in pavement construction, particularly in surface course.

If such particles are present in appreciable proportions, the strength of pavement layer would be adversely affected due to possibility of breaking under loads. Workability is reduced for cement concrete. IRC recommendations for maximum limits of flakiness index are as given.

Sl No:Type of pavementMaximum limits of flakiness index, %
1Bituminous carpet30
2 (i)Bituminous / Asphaltic concrete25
(ii)Bituminous Penetration macadam
(iii)Bituminous surface dressing (single coat, two coats & precoated)
(iv)Built up spray grout
3 (i)Bituminous macadam15
(ii)WBM base course and surface course

About Gopal MishraVerified

Gopal Mishra is a Civil Engineer from NIT Calicut and has more than 10 years of experience in Civil Engineering and Construction. He is the founder of The Constructor.