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Engineering hydrology is the science of water resource engineering which deals with the study of occurrence, distribution, movement and the properties of water on the earth or beneath the earth surface or in the atmosphere.
The main scope of hydrology and its important applications are explained in this article.
Features of Hydrology
The engineering hydrology deals with the following features:
- Estimation of water resources
- Study the components of the hydrological cycle like precipitation, runoff, transpiration, and their interactions.
- Study the problems of floods and droughts and preventive actions.
Scope of Engineering Hydrology
The main scope of engineering hydrology is:
- Determination of Maximum Probable Flood
- Determination of Water yield from a basin
- Study the groundwater development
- Determination of maximum intensity of the storm
1. Determination of Maximum Probable Flood
The study of hydrology can help in determining the maximum probable flood that can occur at a particular location. Its frequency is also determined that is essential for the design of hydraulic structures like dams and reservoirs, channels and other flood control structures.
2. Determination of Water yield from a basin
For the design of dams and municipal water supply units, river navigation etc it is necessary to determine the occurrence, the frequency and the quantity of water that can be yielded from a basin. This is performed in hydrology.
3. Study the ground water development
The knowledge on hydro-geology of the area helps to understand the groundwater development that influences the recharge facilities like reservoirs and streams, climate, cropping pattern etc.
4. Determination of maximum intensity of storm
The maximum intensity of storms influences the design of drainage projects, which are studied in hydrology in depth.
Applications of Engineering Hydrology
The main applications of engineering hydrology are:
- Hydrology provides guidance for undergoing proper planning and management of water resources.
- Calculates rainfall, surface runoff, and precipitation.
- It determines the water balance for a particular region.
- It mitigates and predicts flood, landslide and drought risk in the region.
- It estimates the water resource potential of the river basins
- Enables real-time flood forecasting and flood warning.
- Hydrology analyses the variations observed in the catchments by bringing a relationship between the surface water and groundwater resources of the catchment.
- Hydrology studies the required reservoir capacity that is necessary for irrigation and municipal water supply purpose during drought conditions.
- It is used in the design and operation of hydraulic structures
- It is used for hydropower generation.
- Brings measures to control erosion and sediments.
Also Read: Hydrology and Hydrological Cycle