Understanding the basics of building construction helps to construct a building project successfully. The steps involved in building construction are explained in this article.
Basic Steps in Starting a Building ProjectWhen there is a plan to develop a new building, it is very necessary to have an idea about the start and the end of the building project. The flowchart below shows the construction flow from the start to the end of a building project. There may be variations as every project is unique and follows different design and construction process. In general, the basic steps involved in a building project are briefly explained.
- Preparation of Construction Site
- Foundation Construction
- Superstructure Construction
- Punch Lists
- Building Warranty Period
1. PlanningThe planning in building construction involves three major steps:
- Developing the Building Plan
- Analysing the Finance
- Selecting the Construction Team
- The material cost
- The construction cost
- The labor cost
- Miscellaneous cost
2. Permits and Insurance in Building ConstructionBefore starting a building construction, the owner must make sure that one has necessary permits taken to start the construction. Permits and insurance are obtained from different sources in cities and states. A construction work conducted without permits results in project delay or project demolition or huge fines. Possessing insurance for the required parties helps to save the owner and the contractor.
3. Site PreparationFrom here, the actual construction process starts. Based on the site and building plan, necessary excavations, leveling, and filling can be undergone to prepare the site. The necessary excavation for utilities, power, water and sanitation lines, temporary storage facilities are prepared. Mostly the works needed to set up the utilities are prepared. This is followed by an inspection from the government officials. Read More: Steps in Preparing Site for Construction Projects -Soil Report, Excavation Inspections are performed at different stages on structural, building codes, the utilities, HVAC, electrical works etc. After the completion of the whole project, a final inspection is performed.
4. Foundation / Substructure ConstructionBuilding structures are generally constructed on concrete foundations. Based on the soil type and water table level of the area, the foundation chosen can vary. If necessary, soil testing is performed to check the bearing capacity. Shallow foundations are required for low-rise building. For high-rise building, pile foundation is employed. Once the foundation is selected, the soil is excavated to construct the foundation. It is performed based on the foundation layout. Formworks are placed in the foundation trenches and reinforcement is placed based on the foundation detailing design prepared in the planning stage. The reinforcement works performed by the contractor is periodically checked by the engineer in charge. Read More: Construction of Foundation - Depth, Width, Layout and Excavation The concrete mix of the required proportion is poured to formwork and is cured to form the finished foundation.
5. Superstructure ConstructionThe superstructure is constructed once the substructure is complete. Generally, a framed structured is developed which is later finished with masonry walls. Adequate windows and exterior doors are placed based on the building plan. Other works coming under this section is:
- Construction of roofs or siding
- Installation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning
- Providing adequate electric and water lines connection line.
- Provide insulation works as required to protect from lighting
- Provision of waterproofing to the walls.
- Plastering and finishing the walls and surfaces
- Flooring works
- Exterior and Interior Painting