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Soil Nailing Technique, Its Types, applications, and installation considerations

soil nailing technique and its types

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What is soil nailing technique?

Soil nailing technique used to reinforce soil to make it more stable. Added to that, it is used for slopes, excavations, retaining walls etc. to make it more stable. This article will shed light on soil nailing technique, its types and applications.

Soil nailing technique process

In this technique, soil is reinforced with slender elements such as reinforcing bars which are called as nails as illustrated in Fig.1. These reinforcing bars are installed into pre-drilled holes and then grouted. Moreover, these nails are installed at an inclination of 10 to 20 degrees with vertical.

Fig.1:Details of soil nailing

As the excavation proceeds, the shotcrete, concrete or other grouting materials are applied on the excavation face to grout the reinforcing steel or nails. Fig.2 to Fig.5 illustrate typical soil nailing process.

Fig.2: Drilling holes

Fig.3:nail inserting and grouting

Fig.4:Applying plates

Fig.5:Spraying shotcrete

Types of Soil Nailing techniques

The following sections present different types of soil nailing technique:

Drilled and grouted Soil Nailing method

Fig.6:Drilled and grouted soil nailing method

Driven soil nailing method

Fig.7:Driven soil nail method

Self drilling Soil Nailing method

Fig.8:Self driven soil nail method

Jet Grouted Soil Nailing method

Fig.9:Jet grouting soil nail method

Launched Soil Nail method

Fig.10:Launched soil nail method

Applications of soil nailing

Fig.11:Soil nailing applications

Soil nail installation considerations 

  1. Soil Nails must penetrate beyond the slip plane into the passive zone typically for 4 to 5m.
  2. The spacing of soil nails in horizontal or vertical direction must be related to strength of the soil. Extra soil nails should be installed at the edge of any surface being stabilized.
  3. Finally, soil nailing should start immediately after excavation. Any delay may lead to collapse of soil slope.
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