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These five sources will be examined using examples from structural engineering, particularly with respect to the allowable stress design and LRFD code formats. Some uncertainties are explicitly dealt with in design codes, some are dealt with through quality control measures, and some are dealt with in implicit ways that we often do not think much about, e.g., heuristics. Design codes can deal with uncertainties caused by randomness, statistical limits, some aspects of time, and modeling. Other uncertainties such as human error must be dealt with using quality control methods, such as peer reviews and construction inspection.
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